If, instead of a flat disk, a hemi-cylinder is used for the negative pole, the matter still radiates normal to its surface. The tube before
you (Fig. 8) illustrates this property. It contains, as a negative pole, a hemi-cylinder (a) of polished aluminium. This is connected with a fine copper wire, b, ending at the platinum terminal, c. At the upper end of the tube is another terminal, d. The induction-coil is connected so that the hemi-cylinder is negative and the upper pole positive, and when exhausted to a sufficient extent the projection of the molecular rays to a focus is very beautifully shown. The rays of matter being driven from the hemi-cylinder in a direction normal to its surface, come to a focus and then diverge, tracing their path in brilliant green phosphorescence on the surface of the glass.
Instead of receiving the molecular rays on the glass, I will show you another tube in which the focus falls on a phosphorescent screen. See how brilliantly the lines of discharge shine out, and how intensely the focal point is illuminated, lighting up the table.
Radiant Matter when intercepted by Solid Matter casts a Shadow.—Radiant matter comes from the pole in straight lines, and does not merely permeate all parts of the tube and fill it with light, as would
be the case were the exhaustion less good. Where there is nothing in the way the rays strike the screen and produce phosphorescence, and where solid matter intervenes they are obstructed by it, and a shadow