Report upon United States Geographical Surveys west of the One Hundredth Meridian, in charge of First-Lieutenant George M. Wheeler, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, under the Direction of Brigadier-General A. A. Humphreys, Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army. Published by authority of the Secretary of War. Vol. VII, Archæology. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 497, with 22 Plates.
This volume, which is put forth in a style and with a character of illustration worthy of the work to which it relates, and of the government under which the work is carried on, includes reports upon the archaeologically and ethnological collections from the vicinity of Santa Barbara, California, and from ruined pueblos of Arizona and New Mexico, and certain interior tribes, which have been prepared by Mr. Frederick W. Putnam, of the Peabody Museum, assisted by Drs. C. C. Abbott, S. S. Haldeman, A. C. Yarrow, and Messrs. H. W. Henshaw and Lucian Carr; and an appendix of Indian vocabularies, revised and prepared by Albert S. Gatschet. The vocabularies have been gathered from forty distinct localities, and are divisible into seven distinct stocks. The entire contribution represented by the book, says Lieutenant Wheeler, "has resulted from the incidental labors of members of several expeditions, and but points the way to a large and almost untrodden field of research among aboriginal remains."
English History for Students: Being the Introduction to the Study of English History. By Samuel R. Gardiner, Hon. LL. D., Professor of Modern History in King's College, London. With a Critical and Biographical Account of Authorities, by J. Bass Mullinger, M. A., St. John's College, Cambridge. New York: Henry Holt & Co. Pp. 424. Price, $2.25.
In the first (Professor Gardiner's) part of this volume are considered the growth and development of English civil and political institutions from their origins; which origins, as the introductory chapter shows, are ultimately found at the beginnings of history. The principle is kept in view throughout that the bearing and meaning of every event are largely determined by the events that preceded it, and that it in turn exerts its influence on the events that follow. "By knowing this relation, the inquirer learns not merely what took place, but why it took place." Moreover, "the personalities of history are not merely figures flitting across a stage, of whom it is enough to learn the motives and the actions. They are themselves the result of causes which existed generations before they were born, and influence results for generations after they die." We can not, therefore, "study a generation of men as if it could be isolated and examined like a piece of inorganic matter," but must bear in mind that it is a portion of a living whole which is under observation. Professor Gardiner regards his part as really an introduction to Mr. Mullinger's account of authorities, which forms full half of the volume. It has been Mr. Mullinger's aim in this part carefully to distinguish the contemporary sources of information for each period from the sources of later times, and to supply, where practicable, such an amount of comment as will enable the student to form a fairly accurate notion of each author's value as an authority.
First Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Hon. Carl Schurz, Secretary of the Interior. By Clarence King, Director. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 79, with Map.
The present report reviews the operations of the survey during 1879-'80 in the four geological districts into which Mr. King has divided his work, and which are described in the text and clearly defined in the map as the divisions of the Rocky Mountains, the Colorado, the Great Basin, and the Pacific. Special attention is given to some particular feature or features in each district, so that the report may be regarded as consisting in large part of monographs on Leadville, Lake Bonneville, the Uinkaret and Grand Cañon districts of Colorado, and the San Francisco, Eureka, and Bodie districts of California and Nevada, and the Comstock Lode, each by the assistant geologist in whose particular field the subject fell. Information of a general character respecting mining resources and industries has been derived from officers of the Census Bureau, whose co-operation Mr. King enjoyed, and is added to the special