fordshire as an apothecary. An accidental conversation with a friend turned his attention to anthropological studies, on which he published several memoirs, more particularly relating to the craniological branch of the subject, the most important of which was perhaps the "Crania Britannica," containing delineations and descriptions of the skulls of the aboriginal and early inhabitants of the British Islands. He was an industrious hunter after specimens, and formed at his house a collection of crania and skeletons larger than the collections in all the public museums in the country put together, and which has been surpassed only in very recent years by any of the Continental collections. The catalogue of this collection, the "Thesaurus Craniorum," published in 186*7, contains descriptions and many figures of the specimens, with twenty-five thousand measurements and a large fund of information. The collection was so much increased afterward that a supplement to the catalogue was published in 1875. The two works contained descriptions of seventeen hundred specimens. The collection has been transferred to the College of Surgeons of England.
Congresses of German and Austrian Archæologists.—The Twelfth Congress of German Archæologists met at Regensburg, August 8th, the members having, previous to assembling, visited a local collection of prehistoric and Roman antiquities, illustrating the history of the settlement of the Danube for two thousand years, and listened to an address by Professor Fraas, on the geology and history of Regensburg from its beginning. The report of the general secretary, Professor Ranke, gave a summary of the general progress of archaeological science during the year, and referred especially to the exhibition at Berlin, and the publications connected with it, as having increased interest in the science; to Professor Fraas's review of the primitive history of the country in the Stuttgart catalogue; to the results of the Congress at Lisbon, and to the evidence that had been found, in the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary, of a distinct copper age forming a transition to the bronze age. The list of special publications was quite full, and included essays by Tischler, Voss, and Virchow, on sewing-needles, belt-clasps, treasures, and urns; of Liebe on a former submergence of Thuringia; of Mehlis on the discoveries at Kirchheim on the Eck, and the Hermundurs and Thuringians; of Rosenstein on the spread of flints through trade; of Fischer on the traffic in nephrite; of Ochlenschläger and Herzog on the cartography of the discoveries in Bavaria and Würtemberg, and of other writers on single objects of prehistoric research. The study of local names had been advanced by the labors of Buck in Swabia and Schulenberg in Brandenburg, and Voss has made special studies on formulas of incantation and the blessing of swords. Herr von Tröltsch exhibited a series of four elaborate maps of the archaeological discoveries in Schleswig-Holstein, in which the several classes of rocks and relics were very distinctly indicated by colors. Professor Schaafhausen reported, upon the progress of the general catalogue of the anthropological material of Germany, that special catalogues of the collections in the principal cities and universities are already completed or in hand, and those of societies and private persons will be taken up next. After spending three days in listening to a series of interesting papers, the members of the association went to Salzburg to meet with their fellow-workers of the Austro-Hungarian Association. The sessions here were more lively, and were marked with greater interest than those at Regensburg, for they were characterized by free discussions of every topic, while the proceedings at Regensburg were confined to the reading of the papers. Count Gundiken Wurmbrand, President of the Austro-Hungarian Association, delivered the opening address, referring chiefly to the Etruscan relics found in Austria, the evidences of Celtic culture on the Danube, and the significance of popular ethnography in prehistoric research. The first day's session was occupied with a very lively discussion of the "Celtic question," that is, the question whether the later Germans were ethnologically identical with the earlier Celts, or whether the two were distinct stems. Other interesting discussions were those concerning the period of the mammoth, and concerning the diluvial human relics found in Stramberg. The reports of the German society stated that it now in-