Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 25.djvu/508

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

men to cautiously work out the application of the inventions and discoveries in science to art and industry. The difference between the Humanitarian, who is looking at things as they should be, and the sociologist, who deals with things as they are, represents accurately the distance between the Ideal and the Real. The true philanthropist will take that golden mean,—a man who, while maintaining the just equipoise between the emotional, non-discursive side, and his intellectual and analytic nature, will give wide range to his finer sympathies, "so uniting philanthropic energy with philosophic calm."

By A. C. PEALE, M. D.

THERMAL springs, or those whose mean annual temperature exceeds that of the locality in which they are found, are almost universal in their distribution. This definition, of course, includes more than the springs usually called warm or hot, for, if the temperature exceeds, no matter in how small a degree, the mean temperature of the place in which it rises, it is truly a thermal spring. There will, of course, be a variation according to geographical position. Thus a spring which has a temperature of only a few degrees above the freezing-point would be a thermal spring in Siberia, where the ground is frozen constantly to the depth of six hundred and thirty feet, thawing out only a few feet in summer, and where the mean annual temperature is about 1212° Fahr.; whereas, in the West Indies, or in the Eastern Archipelago, it would be a cold spring. Warm and hot springs are also widely distributed. With the exception of Australia, no continent is without them, and even here they may be said to exist in a fossil state, for sinters and siliceous deposits are found in New South Wales, in a basaltic and trachytic region, indicating the former presence of hot springs, and possibly of geysers. Of course, hot springs are less widely spread than those which are simply warm, being found mainly in districts which have been affected by volcanic action, or where the rocks, from which they flow, have been subjected to disturbances such as occur in mountain elevations. Latitude, however, has no effect, for we find them equally hot in the Arctic regions and under the equator. They are found in the frozen fields of Siberia and on the islands of Alaska, while the Andes have boiling springs from one end to the other. Venezuela and Patagonia, at the extremes of South America, both have their hot springs. When we come to geysers, we find them still more limited in their occurrence, and yet even they are confined to no particular quarter of the globe, for each continent appears to have Its geyser-region. North America has the geysers of the Yellow-