Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 26.djvu/866

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It is a noteworthy fact that the work has not been executed under the bias of any preconceived theory. The author says: "I did not start with the intention of proving anything; and it was only when I was ready to write the last chapter that I found myself justified in drawing the conclusions set forth." This state of mind is undoubtedly favorable to impartiality of statement, and can hardly fail to inspire the reader with a considerable measure of confidence in the trustworthiness of the author's representations.

The author indicates the manner of execution of his volume in the remark: "I have tried to collect the important facts, especially such as had not been stated in English, to arrange them in their historic relations not yet fully delineated in any language, and then to let them tell their own story without needless comment."

Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1880-81. By J. W. Powell, Director. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 514.

The researches of this bureau are bringing to light an abundance of information in regard to the arts, institutions, languages, and opinions of the American Indians.

Mr. Frank H. Cushing's work especially has attracted wide attention, though the accounts as yet published cover only a small part of his observations. He contributes to this volume a paper on "Zuñi Fetiches." The Zuñi worships in general the mysterious powers of Nature, and especially the beasts, which he regards as most nearly related to himself, and hence in position to mediate between him and the more remote powers, lie believes that the hearts of the beasts of prey have the power to take away the strength of the game-animals, thus making them easy to capture. Without recourse to the proper fetiches, so as to obtain the aid of this influence, the Zuñi deems it useless to attempt the chase of game-animals. The favorite fetiches arc mineral concretions, or eroded pebbles having some resemblance to the forms of animals, which is usually heightened artificially. The priests assert that these are the actual bodies, petrified and shrunken, of the animals which they resemble, and that their hearts still live in the fetiches, although their bodies are turned to stone. A flint arrow-head is usually bound to the back or side of the figure, and strings of beads are sometimes hung around it. The fetiches of the beasts of prey are the most esteemed, and the name of this class, Wé-ma-we, is used for all fetiches.

Mrs. Erminnie A. Smith has embodied La a paper a large number of Iroquoian traditions relating to mythical gods and other supernatural beings, the practice of sorcery, and the origins of various phenomena, together with descriptions of religious festivals, and miscellaneous tales of adventure. Echo was the Mars of the Iroquois. In their wars with other tribes, by repeating among the hills their cries of "Go-weh!" he secured for them almost certain victory. The Thunder-god has been regarded as a special protector of this people. Among the supernatural beings were the Stone Giants, mortal enemies of men; the Pygmies, a friendly race; and the Great Heads, which were borne by their long hair, as by wings, on missions of mercy or of destruction. The aim of the essay on "Animal Carvings from Mounds in the Mississippi Valley," by Henry W, Henshaw, is to show that, of these carvings which can be identified, none represent animals which are not indigenous to the Mississippi Valley, and that the art-culture of the mound-builders has been greatly overestimated. Dr. Washington Matthews, U. S. A., describes briefly the tools and processes with which Navajo silversmiths produce a variety of quite elaborate articles. "Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans" is treated at considerable length by William H. Holmes. Fifty-seven plates accompany the paper, showing forms and patterns of dishes, implements, beads, wampum-belts, engraved gorgets, etc. Many extracts from early writers are given, describing the use of wampum-belts as ornaments, currency, and as tokens of treaties. Two catalogues of articles obtained from Zuñi and other Pueblos of New Mexico and Arizona, by James Stephenson, occupy the last 150 pages of the volume. These collections contain 3,905 specimens, consisting largely of pottery, but including basketry, implements, clothing, images, etc. The decoration of much of the pottery, as shown