Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 31.djvu/245

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I have with extreme brevity outlined the hindrances as well as the helps that socially organized human beings offer us in our sustenance. The latter I have classified into six forms of combination (not always exchange) of effort, as follows:

1. Unity of completed service, immediate union of contributors, homeogeneity of functions.
2. Unity of completed service, immediate union of contributors, specialization of functions.
3. Unity of completed service, specialization of functions, separation of contributors.
4. Diversity of completed service, specialization of functions, separation of contributors, service embodied in material commodities.
5. Diversity of completed services, embodied in commodities on one side only, or neither, specialization of functions, contributors sometimes united (as man and wife) in the final purpose of making a living.
6. Combination of past with successive present efforts, all by the same or by different contributors, completed services personal or embodied in commodities.

Whether the list might be extended, or ought to be condensed, is for others to say. In its present form it can hardly be more than suggestive, for its whole line of study is entirely novel, so far as I know. A rigid adherence to it, however, is not essential to my general view of the science, nor to any part of a minute discussion in accordance with that view. At the same time I am inclined to think that some such classification might be made not only highly instructive, but quite convenient for reference.



MUCH has been heard, during the discussions of the labor question, about the rights and interests of manufacturers and of workmen, but comparatively very little about the claims of the work. While the contention between manufacturers and their men has always been hot, and sometimes vital, the product of their joint energy, upon the best availability of which for its intended purpose the life of both parties depends, has been left to shift for itself. Producers have relaxed their pains to secure the best possible product, in order that they might put more money into their pockets, or recoup themselves for the losses they have had to suffer by the antagonism of their men; and workmen have, in obedience to some "union" or "chapter," systematically slighted their work, as one of the means by which they imagined they might get even with the capitalists. The result has been, in

  1. Abridged from a report by Dr. W. T. Barnard to the President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company.