vious years. The special papers contained in this volume—fruits of the division surveys already named—are: "The Rock-Scorings of the Great Ice Invasion," by T. C. Chamberlin;" Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park," by J. P. Iddings; "Geology of Martha's Vineyard," by Prof. Shaler; "Classification of the Early Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian Formations," by R. D. Irving; "Structure of the Triassic Formation of the Connecticut Valley," by W. M. Davis; "Salt making Processes in the United States," by T. M, Chatard; and "Geology of the Head of Chesapeake Bay," by W J McGee.
Profit-Sharing between Employer and Employee. By Nicholas P. Gilman. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 460. Price, $1.75.
The wide extent which labor troubles have reached in the past few years, and the great loss and misery which they have caused, give importance to a scheme which promises to be in any measure a remedy for them. The present volume, which is the only recent work giving a comprehensive account of its subject, is devoted chiefly to a history of profit-sharing. Accounts of experience with the system in business houses of continental Europe occupy three chapters, the first of which is a sketch of "the father of profitsharing," M. Leclaire, and his house. In the other two chapters the operation of the system in paper-making, typographical industries, cotton and woolen factories, iron, brass, and steel works, insurance, banking, and transportation companies, retail establishments, agriculture, and various other industries is described. A chapter is devoted to profit-sharing in England, and another to American experience with the system. Cases in which the system has been abandoned are grouped in another chapter, the reasons for abandonment being given in each case. The author has prefixed to this history an exposition of the present standing of profit-sharing, a brief introduction, a chapter on product-sharing, which is concerned with the conduct of agriculture, fisheries, and mining "on shares," and another on such aspects of the wages system as concern his theme. In two concluding chapters he gives a summary and analysis of the results which have been so far attained, and follows this with a statement of the argument for profit-sharing. The essence of his argument is thus stated: "Profit-sharing advances the prosperity of an establishment by increasing the quantity of the product, by improving its quality, by promoting care of implements and economy of materials, and by diminishing labor difficulties and the cost of superintendence." A bibliography of the subject is appended.
The Complete Works of Rowland G. Hazard. Edited by his Granddaughter, Caroline Hazard. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Four Vols. Pp. 416, 410, 380, 504. Price, $2 a volume.
Mr. Hazard was a man engaged busily in manufactures and commerce, who found time to think of questions of political economy and metaphysics, and wrote well and vigorously upon them. While his discussions usually went back to fundamental principles and were rather abstract, those on economical subjects at least were practical enough to be applicable to questions of the day; and it is mentioned by Prof. G. P. Fisher that in the financial exigencies that arose during the civil war his observations were more than once influential upon the proceedings of Secretaries of the Treasury. He was born, of Quaker descent, in 1801, and lived, excepting thirteen years spent in Pennsylvania, at Peacedale, in Rhode Island, where he was engaged in the woolen manufacture. For ten consecutive years he traveled in the South, in the interest of his business. In the course of these journeys he took up the cause of Northern colored men who were detained at New Orleans in the chain-gang; and, having resolved to secure their release, may be said to have bearded the slave-power in its den and fought it victoriously in its own courts. It is illustrative of the condition of American thought and feeling at the time, that it was deemed expedient, when this matter was referred to several years afterward, to suppress the name of the chief actor, in order that he might not come too directly under public reproach. But Mr. Hazard regarded the episode as the greatest effort of his life. He died June 24, 1888, carrying his taste for the discussion of abstruse questions of metaphysics into the last hours of his life. Mr. Hazard's papers, which were first published as public addresses, in