Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 35.djvu/584

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silver were or had been carried on, and were also directed to a certain extent to the occurrence of the baser metals. After describing the surface geology and the mines of the counties named with considerable fullness, the author summarizes his conclusions that there is but little reason to believe that any workable deposits of gold occur in the State. The promise is better, though not brilliant, for silver; and much of the profit to arise in the working of the silver ores is likely to ensue from the presence of other metals, chiefly lead and zinc, with which the silver ores are closely linked. Other metals looked for were copper, which does not probably exist in deposits that can be profitably worked; tin, of which there is one slight indication; nickel and cobalt, of which one "claim" is mentioned that "deserves development"; manganese, which exists in considerable amount; iron, in ores the quantity and quality of which do not appear to have been definitely determined; and miscellaneous products, such as graphite, silica powder, pyrites, and mineral paints. A list of the minerals of western central Arkansas, and a chapter on the location of mining claims, complete the volume.

A Handbook of Cryptogamic Botany. By Alfred W. Bennett, F. L. S., and George Murray, F. L. S. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 473. Price, $5.

This work fills an important gap in our botanical literature, for, while we have, on the one hand, numerous elaborate monographs dealing with special families or groups of cryptogams, and, on the other, our general treatises on botany give a sketch of the cryptogamic series, there is no book in the English language devoted to presenting the main facts of cryptogamic botany as they are known at the present time. The first subdivision treated is the vascular cryptogams, including fossil forms, and embracing six classes. In this subdivision and the Muscineæ, the classification adopted by the authors follows generally accepted principles. In the Thallophytes, however, where, on account of less complete knowledge, there is less general agreement, the systems are numerous, and the authors state that in choosing among them they have made an effort to bring together those organizations which are most nearly related to one another. To this end, while they adopt the Protophyta of Sachs as a primary class, they differ from that authority in holding to the older division of the higher Thallophytes into the two great groups of Algæ and Fungi. Besides those already mentioned, the two small groups, Characeæ and Mycetozoa, make up the seven chief subdivisions employed in this work. The language of the treatise is clear and smooth, and the authors have striven toward a simple terminology in their department by using such Anglicized forms of Latin and Greek terms as sporange, archegone, antherid, epiderm, etc. The text is illustrated by nearly four hundred excellent illustrations; lists of the literature of the several groups, classes, or orders are inserted at the appropriate places; and the volume is adequately indexed.

The Tree of Mythology, its Growth and Fruitage: A Study. By Charles De B. Mills. Syracuse, N. Y.: C. W. Bardeen. Pp. 288.

This work, which is declared to be the fruit of a love for the subject, seeks to ascertain something of the origin, nature, and growth of myth, what it primarily was, and what has come of it. The theme can not, in the author's view, be said to have become obsolete, "when the bale-fires are still kindled, as in Scotland and Norway, on each return of the solstice; when the peasant, as in Germany, still fodders wind and flame in deprecatory offering, and hunts on St. John's night the witches from house and stall; when, as in our own country, the superstitious regard for signs, omens, etc., still holds so strongly even in intelligent and comparatively freed minds, and survivals almost innumerable of old mythological beliefs exercise, to this hour, powerful sway over both opinions and conduct." The origin of myths is sought by the author chiefly in the disposition of childhood, "and so the child-mind of humanity," to view every object about it as having conscious life; as endowed, in some strange or vague way, with personality. Combined with this is a propensity to exaggerate, particularly in matters associated with the religious sentiment. Thus the illusions of mythology grew as the original