that of the pinched trait and vertical wrinkles with the bitter expression of the mouth (Fig. 12).
It remains to describe the complicated muscular movements that accompany a violent rage. The jaws are strongly pressed upon one another, in expression of an energy ready for the combat,
|Fig. 11.—Pinched Expression, with Furtive Look; Horizontal and Vertical Wrinkles.||Fig. 12.—Pinched Expression, with Bitter, and Vertical Wrinkles.|
of a provoking resolution; the upper lip is elevated and also the wings of the nose (bitter trait) so high that it is impossible to pinch the lips; and the teeth of the upper jaw are seen above the upward-drawn lower lip. The nostrils are swelled out wide, for the movements of respiration and the heart are precipitate in rage, and the air is inhaled and expired violently to meet an obstacle in the tightly closed teeth, so that the breathing, preferably Fig. 13.—Pinched Expression, with Bitter Eyes wide open, Vertical and Horizontal Wrinkles, and Wings of the Nose swelled out (Expression of Fury). done through the nose, is facilitated by the inflation of the nostrils. The forehead presents horizontal wrinkles as a sign of close attention, and vertical wrinkles in expression of anger. The eyes look brilliant and "flash with fire" under the effect of the mental excitement, roll wildly in their orbits, or cast a fixed and piercing look (Fig. 13).
The pinched trait becomes physiognomical most easily and frequently with persons whose daily occupations involve often or for long periods painful or intense bodily efforts, whether in the shape of a great display of force, or of special care and prudence. It may be developed among blacksmiths as well as among embroiderers, among butchers or sculptors; but we may be sure that persons with whom we find it