Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 38.djvu/775

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sweepers in charge of districts, should be selected solely because of their fitness for their respective duties, and should not be removed except for good and sufficient cause. The methods of the successful merchant, banker, and manufacturer, especially in respect to all employés, are necessary to the economical and satisfactory conduct of any public business; and whoever attempts to clean the streets of New York by any other theory or practice is certain to add another to the many notable failures of the past twenty-five years.

It is believed that with the adoption of the measures and methods above indicated, and strict adherence to the same, with fair executive business ability at the head of the Department of Street-cleaning, the streets of New York can be made as clean as those of London, Paris, or Berlin. From the city statistics it appears that the expense of cleaning the streets and removing the ashes and garbage of the city has increased more rapidly than the population, and that the expense was considerably less comparatively while the business was conducted by the Police Department than at any time since. As there has been no appreciable improvement in the condition of the streets in respect to cleanliness, it may fairly be concluded that the increased appropriations have not produced correspondingly improved results. It is also a reasonable conclusion that, with the exercise and use of business and common-sense methods, the entire cost of keeping the streets of New York clean, and carefully and satisfactorily disposing of its ashes and garbage, should not for a long period exceed the average appropriation of the last five years.


I PURPOSE to study now the movements of the child at the earliest age, and on the present occasion, particularly, the appearance and first steps of the growth of the will. In previous lectures we have witnessed the awakening of emotions in the child.[1] We have seen its perceptive faculties developing, new

  1. This lecture is a part of M. Marion's course on the science of education, delivered at the Literary Faculty of Paris. The lecturer's special subject in 1889 was the psychology of the child, and the present lecture was the tenth of the year. Having in previous years treated of education in general, its objects and means, of the great biological, psychological, and moral laws which rule in it, and of the great departments comprehended in it, M. Marion finally comes to the connected subject of the psychical development of the child, attending first to the description of it as it takes place in fact and spontaneously, but pointing out, as he goes, what it ought to be, how it should be directed, and how it is often disturbed.