age of the reindeer. Those of Lamouroux are the work of man, as is attested by the marks of the pick which they still bear. They are grouped in Line and arranged in different stories which communicate with one another, there being in some places five stories. Some were distinguished by benches in the back, bearing tying-holes on their edges, which suggested that they had been occupied by the domestic animals. The situation of these grottoes in the neighborhood of the Château of Turenne, crowning the heights, induces the supposition that they served as places of refuge for Protestants during the religious wars. The bone caves of Borneo appear to have been occupied by men who were acquainted with the use of manufactured iron. The remains have recently been discovered on the banks of the Amu Daria or Oxus River, in central Asia, of a considerable city which was composed of caverns hewn in the rock. It seems, from the inscriptions, coins, and other objects found in it, to have been in existence in the second century of the Christian era. Some of the houses were of several stories.
Dr. Arthur Mitchell, of Edinburgh, in a lecture delivered a few years ago on the condition and antiquity of the cave-men of western Europe, showed of the men of the caves which he had
Fig. 2—Upper figure—a piece of bone, bearing regular designs. Lower figure—a piece of rib with an ovibos engraved upon it. Both found in the grotto of Marsoulas (Haute-Garonne).
particularly in mind—that their weapons of war and the chase were made of bone or horn, and highly finished, while their implements of stone were extremely rude and calculated chiefly to serve as tools in the making of their bone implements, so that they were placed in the bone rather than the stone age of civilization. From an elaborate examination of the objects which the cave-man has left, displaying an art faculty, and from the study of the crania