Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 41.djvu/703

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the molecular edifice. The efforts which have been recently made to fill this void are more difficult to expound and follow than fruitful in applications.

Six methods of extracting perfumes are known: The first is expression, by means of a special press, which is applicable without too great loss to fruit-skins rich in essential oils, such as orange and citron peel, previously grated. Another method is that of distillation, which consists in heating flowers with water in a boiler. The essential oil is volatilized and is condensed with the vapor of water in a worm and a Florentine receiver. The water usually goes to the bottom and the oil floats. The oils of neroli, rose, patchouli, geranium, lavender, caraway, etc., are obtained in this way. This process is not applicable to the delicate perfumes of the mignonette and the violet; and for them recourse is had to maceration of the flowers in animal fats or mineral oils, which have the property of absorbing odorous substances, and are then washed in alcohol. The flowers are usually heated in the fat or the oil for a variable number of hours. For perfumes which can not endure a high temperature the petals are placed between two frames of glass coated with fat. This is the process of enfleurage. The pneumatic process, which consists in causing a current of perfumed air or carbonic acid to be absorbed by coatings of lard on glass plates, appears not to have given satisfactory results. Another process consists in dissolving perfumes in very volatile liquids like sulphuret of carbon, chloroform, naphtha, ether, or chloride of methyl, and volatilizing the solvents, which can be done at a low temperature in a vacuum. The last method has given very satisfactory results in the extreme delicacy and great accuracy of its returns.

Series. Types. Secondary odors of the same series.
Rose The rose Geranium, eglantine, palissander.
Jasmin The jasmin Lily of the valley, ylang-ylang.
Orange Orange flower, or neroli Acacia, syringa, orange leaf.
Tuberose Tuberose Lily, jonquil, narcissus, hyacinth.
Violaceous Violet Cassis, iris mignonette
Balsamic Vanilla Balsams of Peru and Tolu benzoin, storax, tonka bean, heliotrope.
Spiey Cinnamon Nutmeg, mace, allspice.
Caryophyllaceous Clove Pink.
Camphor Camphor Rosemary, patchouli.
Sandal Sandal-wood Vetivert, cedar
Citrine Citron Orange, bergamot, cedrat, lime fruit.
Herbaceous Lavender Aspic, thyme, wild thyme, marjoram.
Mint Peppermint Wild mint, basil, sage.
Anise Anise Anise-seed, caraway, dill, fennel, coriander.
Almond Bitter almonds Laurel, nut, mirbane.
Musky Musk Civet, musk-mallows
Amber Ambergris.
Fruit Pear Apple, pineapple, quince.