indicated in some cases), height of the land by means of coloring, canals, battle-fields, elevation in feet of important towns, mountain peaks and passes, and the limit of navigation in rivers. There are geological, rainfall, population, industrial, and commercial maps of the United States, and one showing territorial growth, besides the general map of the whole country, and one of the northeastern part on a larger scale. To avoid overloading the maps, names of unimportant places are not printed on them, but such places may be found by means of the index, in which their locations are indicated. A sheet of astronomical diagrams is prefixed to the maps, and the volume has a thumb-index.
A Manual of North American Butterflies. By Charles J. Maynard. Boston: De Wolfe, Fiske & Co. Pp. 226. Price, $1.50.
Intending his book for the tyro as well as for the advanced student, the author has avoided the use of technical terms as far as possible. He has also made his descriptions as short as possible, and in the interest of clearness has used the comparative method wherever he could do so. The volume contains ten hand-colored plates, on which one species of nearly all the genera of North American butterflies are figured, and woodcuts are inserted in the text showing some peculiar character of about two hundred and fifty more species, by which the insects may be known. Both plates and woodcuts, with one exception, have been drawn and engraved by the author. The arrangement used is that published by Mr. W. H. Edwards in 1884.
The Rural Publishing Company, New York, publish in their Rural Library—a series of monthly issues of popular pamphlets on scientific and practical topics in agriculture and horticulture—a well-studied paper on Cross-breeding and Hybridizing, by L. H. Bailey. It considers the philosophy of the crossing of plants, with reference to their improvement under cultivation, first summarizing the results of the studies of Darwin and other authors who have investigated the subject; then setting forth the advantages of crossing within the variety and change of stock within ordinary bounds; and, finally, going on to the summary production of new varieties. This is a difficult and delicate process, calling for the exercise of the greatest skill and patience. The author records several experiments of his own in the process, all going to illustrate its uncertainty; and concludes: "Encourage in every way crosses within the limits of the variety and in connection with change of stock, expecting increase in vigor and productiveness; hybridize if you wish to experiment, but do it carefully, honestly, and thoroughly, and do not expect too much." A valuable feature of the publication is the copious bibliography of the subject.
A pamphlet comes to us from Italy discussing financial questions and reviewing the situation in that country in particular, entitled Il Baratto dei Biglietti di Banca fra gli Istituti di Emissions e il Corso forzoso in Italia (The Exchange of Bank-notes between Institutions of Emission and Forced Circulation in Italy), by the Avocato Francesco Ciaffii. The author regards the financial situation of his country as critical, and a forced circulation as imminent.
The periodical formerly known as The Triangle now comes to us as Physical Education, to which subject it is devoted. The name of the company by which it is published still remains the Triangle Publishing Company, and the triangle—denoting the co-operation of body, spirit, and mind—is still the emblem of its school. It purposes to publish chiefly original matter. We are glad to observe it deploring the pushing of records in special lines, refusing to hold up in prominence those who succeed in doing extraordinary work in any single line, and declaring itself committed to all-round work. It also expresses dissent with those who hold that symmetry of bodily form is the great object to be worked for, and with those who look to bodily health as the end of their endeavors. Symmetry of bodily form is an incidental good, and bodily health is only one of the objects to be pursued.
Food is a new monthly publication devoted to cookery, household economy, and good living, including foods, dietetics, adulterations, sanitation, regimen for the sick-room, new domestic inventions, and all matters of careful and healthful living, published by the Clover Publishing Company, New York.