Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 41.djvu/75

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nographic museums of the world, with Pigorini as director and Coligni as assistant. Two of these workers occupy unique positions. Prof. Paolo Mantegazza is President of the Anthropological Society of Italy, editor of an anthropological journal, Director of the National Museum of Ethnography and Anthropology, and professor in the university. We mention these titles because they suggest his work. Physical anthropology, man himself, is his specialty. Mantegazza has traveled much and has written works of value as a result—such are his monograph upon the Lapps and his work on India. But the books to which his fame is most due are of a more general character. Such are his Physiology of Pleasure, Physiology of Pain, and Physiognomy and Expression. The latter has been published in America in English, and will give a good idea of his style. His trilogy on love—Physiology of Love, Hygiene of Love, and Ethnography of Love—has created a sensation. The German translation of these has sold by tens of thousands; a similar success has attended the French edition; and in Italy they are seen everywhere. Mantegazza's mind is intensely analytic. This is shown both in his writings and in his museum. Nowhere else, so far as we know, is analysis applied to anthropological material. He divides it into groups illustrating: (1) Comparative anthropology, (2) biological anthropology, (3) artificial deformations, (4) pathological anthropology, (5) psychological anthropology, (6) ethnical anthropology. It must be confessed that having divided his material in this way he makes no attempt to arrange it afterward in the cases. In this museum, Prof. Mantegazza has upward of four thousand skulls, two thousand of which are Italian. One of Mantegazza's latest ideas is a psychological museum, in which, by objects, the workings of the mind are to be illustrated. This museum has been begun, but it will be long before the plan can be fully developed. By profession Henry H. Giglioli is a zoologist. In charge of the department of vertebrate zoology at the University of Florence, his work in that line speaks for itself. Interested in ethnography by a voyage he made around the world, he has gathered a collection of stone implements unsurpassed perhaps by any other private collection. The idea of the series is not to illustrate the stone age of any one place or people, but by carefully selected specimens from every part of the world to show all types of stone implements. Prof. Giglioli has also much interest in the persistence of the use of stone tools into later culture stages.

Paris epitomizes France, and certainly the character of French work in anthropology is fairly shown if that of the capital is described. Anthropology is more cultivated in Paris than anywhere else in the world, and every department is there developed. The ethnographic collections are at the Louvre, the Trocadéro, and