Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 43.djvu/432

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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

to legal practice in London, which, together with lecturing and literary work, occupied his energies for twelve years. In 1861 he published his Ancient Law, which at once became an authority and a text-book. The following year he accepted the Law Membership in the Council of the Governor-General of India. He held this position until 1869, and during this period two hundred and nine acts were passed. The speeches and minutes that make up the body of the present volume relate to matters of East Indian legislation which demanded his attention during these years. Some of these matters concern the government of provinces—i. e., Judicial Taxation, The Bengal Legislature, and Over Legislation; others, such as Divorce, Emigration, and Whipping, concern the daily life of the people. In all may be seen Maine's breadth of view and his temperate and convincing style of argument. Besides their biographical interest these documents have also a sociological value from the glimpses they give into the life and thought of the East Indian peoples. Sir Grant Duff's memoir tells much about Maine's university days, his writing for the Saturday Review and other journals, and recounts, also, the appointments and honors of his later life.

 

In Volume III of the Journal of American Ethnology and Archæology, A. E. Bandelier gives a most interesting outline of the documentary history of the Zuñi tribe, which will serve as an important link in the chain of evidences of prehistoric civilization on the northern portion of this continent.

At no time in our history has there been such an influx of speculative literature concerning prehistoric man in America as is now offered to ethnological students; considerable discussion existing as to the conditions of prehistoric man, his period of advent here, and probable characteristics and civilization. From among the many works upon this interesting subject it is still difficult to accept as satisfactory and conclusive evidence the consequential conclusions of the writers. Their researches are of decided speculative value to science; but they advance their theories and make their conclusions solely upon the vague probabilities of certain conditions and appearances of archaeological discoveries.

The material used in this monograph is exclusively derived from Spanish documents, which the author was enabled to study in the archives of the Mexican Republic, and of the Indies, at Seville, Spain, and chiefly concerns the discoveries of certain Spanish monks between 1538 a. d. and the end of the seventeenth century. From these documents it is evident that a high degree of civilization existed among the Zuñi people early in the fifteenth century, and must have existed there for hundreds of years prior to the discovery of the country by the Spaniards. Here is an extract concerning the expedition of Fray Marcos, of Nissa, in 1538: ". . . About a month and a half ago there came a monk, lately arriving from some newly discovered land which, they say, is five hundred leagues from Mexico, . . . and toward the north. Of this country it is said that it is rich in gold and other valuable products, and has large villages. The houses are of stone and earth, the people use weights and measures, they are civilized, marry only once, dress in woolen goods, and ride on certain unknown animals." Another witness testifies that "there were many cities and towns well peopled; that the cities were walled and the gates guarded; that the people were very wealthy; that there were silversmiths; that the women wore jewels of gold, and the men girdles of gold and white woolen dresses; that they had sheep, cows, and quails, and that there were butchers and smithies." It is therefore evident that the Zuñi Indians possessed a civilization long prior to the advent of European explorers; and as the authenticity of these documents is unquestioned, we have, in the researches of Mr. Bandelier, some very important matter upon which to build further and reliable inquiry into the prehistoric conditions of man on this continent. Unfortunately, the almost total destruction of the archives in New Mexico by the Indians, in 1680, renders it difficult to secure a complete history of the past of New Mexico, and of the discoveries in Arizona which were made by explorers from New Spain in the early part of the sixteenth century. Nevertheless, in this monograph considerable light is thrown upon the conditions, civilization, and characteristics of the early dwellers of North America.

In a report on the Relations of Soil to