one of the most effective steps of organization and monopoly to retain power, namely, the selection of patron saints, the adoption of rites and ceremonies, and the use of banners, badges, and distinctive costumes. Most curiously, master plumbers have not neglected to propose a like step to safeguard their rights and privileges. "We would urge upon the Executive Committee," said Mr. James Ryan, the vice-president of the District of Columbia Association, "to make some recommendation that a ritual be adopted . . . We would also recommend a suitable badge or emblem be adopted for all local associations, making it a universal badge throughout the country." I have still to learn, however, that they have chosen a fitting patron saint. Is it because they have not heard of Cagliostro?
[To be continued.]
|EXPERIMENTS ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ALCOHOL, MADE UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE COMMITTEE OF FIFTY.|
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY, CLARK UNIVERSITY.
IT may be well to call to mind the title of this paper, which is experiments upon the physiological influence of alcohol. We purpose to adhere closely to "experiments" and to "physiology." Dogs could be killed in a few minutes, or a few days or months, by sufficiently large doses of alcohol. While such experiments might have some interest to toxicology or pathology, they could not have much for physiology, because in such violent procedures the abnormal must greatly overshadow the normal functions of the animal.
April 27, 1805, I obtained two pairs of cocker-spaniel puppies: the males, brothers from the same litter; the females, sisters from a not-closely related litter. All four happened to have
- Proceedings, Detroit, 1894, p. 72.
- The dogs were obtained from Mr. C. G. Browning, of Worcester, to whom I am under great obligations for assistance and advice as to kennel management. Tipsy and Topsy were bred by him. Nig and Bum he kindly obtained for me from the Swiss Mountain Kennels at Germantown, Pa., bred by Mrs. Smyth. Considerable expense was involved in getting such good stock, but a number of considerations seemed to render it advisable. In no other way could such uniformity and comparability have been attained. The heredity of mongrels could not have been traced, in case anything of interest should crop out in that important field. In this connection I wish to express my thanks to both Mrs. Smyth and Mr. Browning for valuable aid already received, and for their cordial assurances of help in future, should later developments require it. Another consideration, which weighed some-