tion, in which he was encouraged and assisted by his liberal-minded father, was to visit the Philippine Islands, alone if he should not find suitable companions. In the hope that he might thereby further advance his scientific purposes, as well as in order to gratify his taste for a sea life, he determined to make the voyage on a sailing vessel. Reaching Manila in December 1858, he devoted the first half year of his stay there to making himself acquainted with the country and the people and to mastering the language, and, limiting his zoölogical rambles at first to the neighborhood of the town, did not undertake any more extensive excursion till August, 1859, when he went to the southern part of the Philippines. During a residence of seven months at Zamboanga and on Basilan, in addition to his zoological and other scientific researches, he studied the anthropology and ethnology of the Mohammedan Malays living there. Returning to Manila in March, 1860, he began the next month a second long journey to the northeastern part of the island of Luzon, where, besides zoölogical studies, he had an opportunity to become acquainted with the heathen tribes of Malays and collect much new and valuable anthropological and ethnographical material.
His activity was interrupted for several weeks by illness, and, following the advice of a physician, he embarked for the Pelew Islands, where he intended to study the coral formations. His vessel was leaky and unseaworthy, and the voyage was lengthened by the necessity of running in often at the different islands for repairs. His stay at the Pelew group was prolonged for months by delay in putting the vessel in proper condition for the return voyage, and he suffered great hardships, but formed very pleasant relations with the natives; and this, with the richness of the scientific and ethnological treasures he acquired, was ample compensation for all.
Having returned to Manila, he was married to Anna Hermann, of Hamburg, and they soon afterward went to the island of Bohol, north of Mindanao, whence he in the same year (1862) made brief excursions to the neighboring islands of Cebú, Leyte, and Mindanao. The last of the series of expeditions from the Philippine Islands was made to the interior of Mindanao from May till December, 1864; and in May, 1865, Semper left Manila for home.
Near the close of this year Semper was licensed by the Philosophical Faculty of Würzburg as Privat Docent in zoölogy. In February, 1869, he was appointed professor extraordinary. Ten days later he became a temporary supply for Professor Leiblein, who was ill, and on Leiblein's death, in August of the same year, he was appointed regular professor and director of the zoölogical cabinet. In 1870 he was invited to go to Göttingen, but decided to remain at Würzburg.