Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 6.djvu/692

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672
THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

of its hands by the societies and museums to which it has given rise. Among these is the Photographic Society, whose inception was due to the exhibition organized by Dr. Diamond. The South Kensington Museum itself may be fairly regarded as an offshoot of the Mediæval Exhibition, while the Government Department of Science and Art is directly descended from the parent body. But the mission of the Society is not to repose on its laurels. It comes to the fore with a formidable list of premiums, at the head of which is a series of gold medals and prizes of 50 for improved cooking and warming apparatus; 500 are devoted to this purpose, and have been placed at the disposal of the Society by a single member. A large number of prizes in money, and many gold and silver medals, are also offered to inventors. Much interest is excited at the present moment concerning the award of the Albert Gold Medal, a prize established in memory of the late prince consort, to reward "distinguished merit in promoting arts, manufactures, or commerce." This medal was first presented in 1864, to Sir Rowland Hill, K. C. B., in 1865 to the late Emperor of the French, and in 1866 to Faraday. Since then, this distinguishing mark of the Society's appreciation has been conferred on Wheatstone, Whitworth, Liebig, Henry Cole, Henry Bessemer, and has this year been awarded by the council to Dr. C. W. Siemens, "for his researches in connection with the laws of heat, and the practical applications of them to furnaces used in the arts; and for his improvements in the manufacture of iron; and generally for the services rendered by him in connection with economization of fuel in its various applications to manufactures and the arts."

For some years the Society's examinations, conducted through local institutions about the country, have assisted the spread of general education, and, now that this work is being more completely executed by the university local examinations, the Society has set on foot a scheme of technological examinations, which it is hoped may bear good fruit.

 

THE FIRST TRACES OF MAN IN EUROPE.
By Prof. ALBRECHT MUELLER.

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN, BY PROF. JOSEPH MILLIKIN.

I.

IN a fine contrasting of Europe's wealth of historic memorials with his own country's yet new civilization, Washington Irving says of the former country, "Its every stone is a chronicle."

The remark is true, applied, as he meant it to be, to our older cities with their ancient edifices and defenses. But, belonging to a yet remoter past, are the remains of Roman and Celtic arts and architecture;