Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 65.djvu/395

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The whole reaction is equivalent to the formation of water out of both its ions, H and OH, and evidently independent of the nature of the strong acid and of the strong base. The heat of any reaction of this kind must, therefore, always be the same for equivalent quantities of any strong acids and bases. In reality it is found to be 13,600 cal. in all cases. This thermal equality was the most prominent feature that thermochemistry had discovered.

It was now asked in what respect the active state of the electrolytes differs from the inactive one. On this question I gave an answer in 1887. At that time van't Hoff had formulated his wide-reaching law that the molecules in a state of great dilution obey the laws that are valid for the gaseous state, if we only replace the gas-pressure by the osmotic pressure in liquids. As van't Hoff showed, the osmotic pressure of a dissolved body could much more easily be determined by help of a measurement of the freezing point of the solution than directly. Now both the direct measurements made by De Vries, as also the freezing points of electrolytic solutions, showed a much higher osmotic pressure than might be expected from the chemical formula. As, for instance, the solution of 1 gram-molecule of ethylic alcohol grams—in one liter gives the freezing-point—1.85° C, calculated by van't Hoff the solution of 1 gram-molecule of sodium chloride grams—in one liter gives the freezing-point ° C. This peculiarity may be explained in the same manner as the 'abnormal' density of gaseous sal-ammoniac, viz., by assuming a partial dissociation—to 75 per cent.—of the molecules of sodium chloride. For then the solution contains 0.25 gram-molecules of NaCl, 0.75 gram-molecules of Cl and 0.75 gram-molecules of Na; in all, 1.75 gram-molecules. Now we have seen before how we may calculate the number of active molecules in the same solution of sodium chloride, and we find by Kohlrausch's measurements precisely the number 0.75. From this I was led to suppose that the active molecules of the salts are divided into their ions. These are wholly free and behave just as other molecules in the solutions. In the same manner I calculated the degree of dissociation of all the electrolytes that were determined at that time—they were about eighty—and I found in general a very good agreement between the two methods of calculation. In a few instances the agreement was not so good; I therefore made new determinations for these bodies and some others. The new determinations were all in good conformity with the theoretical prevision.

The next figure (Fig. 6) shows the freezing-points of some solution of salts, and of non-conductors. As abscissa is used the molecular concentration of the bodies, as ordinates the molecular depression of