The Japanese has never been placed under the ban to which his Mongol brother, the Chinese, is subjected, because not until recently did Japanese immigration reach proportions of alarming size. The rapid increase of Japanese immigration is shown by the table given below.
The Japanese coolie labor is (according to some observers who have made a special study of them) more undesirable than the Chinese. There are thousands of these Japanese working in the orchards, vineyards, gardens, hop and sugar-beet fields of California.
The investigations of the California State Labor Bureau show that the Japanese usually come here in gangs of twenty-five or more, and are controlled by Japanese boarding-house keepers in San Francisco, Seattle and other Pacific ports, the system resembling the 'pa drone system' of the Italians. These Japanese boarding-house keepers or bosses are in touch with so-called 'Immigration companies' in Japan. Mr. Thos. F. Turner, in his able report upon Chinese and Japanese labor in the mountain and Pacific states, prepared for the Industrial Commission, and presented by it to Congress, December 5, 1901, says:
It is a fact full of significance that of the hundreds of coolies who are constantly coming into the United States every one produces just $30 in gold; no more, and no less.
That the entire system of immigration companies, boarding-house keepers and Japanese bosses is but an elaborate and ingenious method of avoiding our contract labor laws, no one who has investigated the subject can doubt.
The following is an exact translation of one of the immigrant contracts referred to: