DISCUSSION AXD CORRESPONDENCE
��homicide during the two years 1903-4 was 9.56 per 100,000 of population.
In Cincinnati, the average for the six years 1898-1904 was 6.2:5. In 1890 the disparity was still greater, the ratio being 4.04 in Cincinnati and 13.01 in Cleveland." This higher rate is as- cribed at length to the influx of for- eigners into Cleveland, in ■ spite of the contrary view of the chief-of-police, from whose report the figures are de- rived. But is it not true that in a de- eade this crime has increased 50 per , cent, in Cincinnati and decreased over! 25 per cent, in Cleveland, in spite of the latter's growth in ' undesirable ' popu- lation? Still, the foreigners in Cin- cinnati are not bad enough for Mr. Shipley's purpose; he therefore re- cords that the 18.61 per cent, of for- eigners in its white population allowed by the Twelfth Census furnished 64.04 per cent, of the 7,135 whites arrested in 1904; he then enumerates the ar- rests for murder and attempted mur- der and calmly asserts that ' a large proportion of these crimes were un- doubtedly committed by foreign-born whites,' although the figures at his command do not seem to even admit of the usual separation of whites and negroes. Anybody ignorant of the fact that 'arrests' are made for misde- meanors as well as felonies might infer a connection between the percentages quoted above and the tendency toward
��homicide, which Mr. Shipley would doubtless be the first to deny; never- theless, such careless juxtaposition must seriously inpugn the authority of an investigator.
Murder is the most atrocious crime in our penal code; before we throw the suspicion of homicidal proclivities upon hundreds of thousands of innocent im- migrants, let us weigh our evidence seriously and see whether our own sta- tistics are truthful. Is wilful homi- cide reported and punished uniformly throughout the country? Do our courts deal equally with the foreigner and the native, the Caucasian and the Mongolian, the rich and the poor? Is a classification into nationalities suffi- cient, or must age and sex also be taken into account? Are certain oc- cupations, leading to violent habits, chosen by the immigrant from inclina- tion or forced upon him by our social and economic conditions? Is the Italian, the Russian or the ' Hun ' less amenable to law than were the found- ers of the Texan Republic, the ' forty- niners,' the ' Filibusters,' the ' cow- boys' and the ' rustlers ' ? Above all, is Mr. Shipley right in asserting, on page 168 of his article, that the second generation of foreigners is al- ways worse than the first ; if that be true, what becomes of the boasted strength of our American civilization ?