THE JEWS: RACE AND ENVIRONMENT 449
Wales it was found, while taking the census of 1901, that of all mar- ried Jews, 781 were married to Jewesses and 686, i. e., 87 per cent., were married to christians. 3
In the history of the Jews in the United States there are many instances of intermarriage between Jews and christians, even in Co- lonial times. According to Professor Hollander, the well-known ' Ye Jew doctor,' Jacob Lumbrozo in Maryland married a christian woman about 1660. 4 Dembitz shows that " there is no frequenter of the synagogue who either lived in Kentucky or whose ancestors lived there before 1836," and he gives as a cause that the early Jewish settlers dis- appeared through intermarriage with christians " and the descendants of the early Jewish settlers are known only by their Jewish family names and their oriental ( ?) features." 5 One has to read detailed accounts of several Jewish families in New York, Pennsylvania, Con- necticut, Massachusetts, etc., to be convinced as to the extent of mixed marriages in pre-revolutionary times. The Franks family is particu- larly interesting: One daughter, Rebecca, married Sir Henry Johnson; another, Mary or Polly, married Andrew Hamilton. 6 About New York, M. J. Kohler says in his work ' Jewish Life in New York before 1800 ' that " several cases are at hand of intermarriage between Jews and Jewesses to christians and occasional conversions to the prevailing religion." 7 In the ' Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College/ Vol. II., 1763, two Jews are mentioned, one ' of Jewish ex- traction ' who became a prominent citizen and one of the founders of the episcopal church in Norwalk ; the other married a woman of French Huguenot descent. In Ohio also all traces of the early Jewish settlers have been lost. One is mentioned who was married ' out of his faith/ but when he died, in 1821, he asked to be buried with Jewish rites. 8 Speaking of Judah P. Benjamin, of New Orleans, whose wife was a devout catholic and whose daughter married Captain Henri de Bou- signac, of the 117th regiment of the French line, Kohler says : " Such intermarriage was, in 1833, not uncommon." A Jewish traveler in New Orleans in 1842 speaks of the synagogue, which merely accom- modated fifty persons, and a former " rabbi, a Dutchman, had married a catholic wife, who with difficulty was restrained from sending a crucifix to his grave at his burial."
��3 Census of N. S. W., 1901, Bull. No. 14.
4 Public. Jewish Histor. Soc, I., p. 29. 6 Ibid., pp. 99-101.
6 Westcott, ' Historic Mansions,' quoted from Publ. Jew. Histor. Soc, I., pp. 57-58.
"Ibid., II., p. 91.
8 Ibid., VII., p. 43.
9 Ibid., XII., pp. 68-69.
vol. lxix. — ti9.