THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE
University at Columbus was not established until 1870. The University of Florida, established in 1904, makes the number of state universities thirty-nine, and, as there are three in Ohio, the number of states and territories having state universities is thirty-seven.
Nearly all the universities of the eastern states have at one time or another received appropriations from the state and have been to a certain extent under state control, and at present certain universities, such as Pennsylvania and Cornell, may be regarded as partly state institutions. In each case the governor of the state is a member of the board of trustees and appropriations are made by the state for the support of the university.
The next column of the table gives the numbers of instructors and students, according to which the University of New Mexico, with 89 students and nineteen instructors, is the smallest of the institutions, while the largest are Wisconsin, with 3,571 students and 317 instructors; Minnesota, with 3,955 students and 317 instructors; Illinois, with 4,074 students and 408 instructors; Michigan, with 4,136 students and 332 instructors, and California, with 4,173 students and 403 instructors. According to the figures annually' compiled by Professor Tombo and published in Science, the five largest universities which are independent of the state are Harvard, with 5,343 students and 583 instructors; Chicago, with 4,731 students and 341 instructors; Columbia, with 4,650 students and 600 instructors; Cornell, with 4,075 students and 525 instructors; and Pennsylvania, with 3,934 students and 375 instructors. It will thus be seen that the leading corporations do not differ greatly in size.
The table next gives the annual tuition fees, whence it appears that Indiana, Arkansas, Nevada and Oklahoma charge no fees, while in a number of other states the fees are nominal. Several of the universities charge higher fees to non-residents than to residents of the state. Perhaps the most interesting data on the table are the comparisons of the annual income apart from tuition fees of these universities in 1896 and 1906. There is here an increase that holds for every institution without exception and which is certainly most remarkable. Thus the annual income of the ten principle universities of the middle west was in 1896 $1,689,200, whereas ten years later it was $4,577,700. The figures given in the table are, however, somewhat obscured by the fact that there is no distinction made between appropriations for current income and for new buildings. The two following columns give the approximate total appropriations from the state and gifts from private sources, showing clearly how largely state universities are dependent on the public for support. Thus Illinois, wnich has received $6,000.000 from the state, has only received $25,000 by private gift. Some of the universities, as Michigan and California, have, however, received considerable gifts. In his report President Pritchett urges that the universities must depend either on public appropriations or on private gifts, and this point of view is on the whole supported by these figures and by conditions in foreign countries. The conditions, however, are not necessarily final. In New York City, for example, there are admirable museums of natural history and of the fine arts and botanical and zoological gardens which are supported almost equally by the city and by private gifts.
We regret to record the deaths of Major James Carroll, U. S. A., known for his researches on yellow fever, and of Professor W. O. Atwater, of Wesleyan University, known for his researches on nutrition.