matter," by citing the ease of the West Indies negroes who grow fat on sugar at certain seasons when they are at work on the cane. The absorption and need of water and "calcareous earth" is also discussed. The author reaches the conclusion that water not alone supplies the waste of fluids, but also goes to form the solids of the body. He says:
In referring to the "action of the mind" on the secretion of saliva Young makes the following comment in a foot-note:
Is it far-fetched to recall in this connection the comparable psychic secretion which has been described in recent years for both saliva and gastric juice and the probability of a common stimulus for the production of each?
Let us now consider more particularly Dr. Young's observations on the processes in the stomach. He assumes that sufficient evidence was already at hand from experiments on animals to permit plausible, if not conclusive, inferences concerning our own digestion. He writes:
Our common large bull-frog (Rana ocellata) was chosen in order to observe the effects of the gastric fluid, as they swallow all their prey whole. They have a large membranous stomach, which when distended, occupies the whole anterior part of the abdomen: the œsophagus is very wide, so that their food can be examined at pleasure. Two of a very large size were procured, and their stomachs were found to be greatly distended with food: being desirous of seeing what was their natural aliment, and the effects of their digestive power upon it, by means of a pair of forceps, one of their stomachs was easily emptied of its contents; and to my surprise, and that of others who witnessed the fact, it was found to contain a common sized spring frog, and afforded a fine oppor-
- One is reminded of J. Loeb's demonstration nearly a hundred years later that certain fishes can be put into distilled water without the least injury.