Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 74.djvu/86

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82
THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY

affected by proximity and a common language. The second group in which the change is small consists of Great Britain, +3; Russia, +2; Belgium, +1; Holland, -2. The third group, in which the percentage diminishes, contains: Italy, -5; Spain, -5; Switzerland, -9; France, -20. Evidently this grouping is not accidental, but is due to a common cause. The first and second groups include, in general, central and northern Europe, the Germanic, English and Slavonic races, and the Protestant countries. The third group includes in a marked manner southwestern Europe, the Romanic races and the Roman Catholic countries. The results for the German, English and French groups of countries, represented by the last three lines of the second to the fifth columns of Table II., are shown in the accompanying figure. Horizontal distances represent times and vertical

PSM V74 D086 Foreign associates of national societies.png

German Group. English Group. French Group.

distances, percentages of membership. In the first group the percentage of membership has increased about three times, in the last group it has diminished nearly two thirds. The numbers in the eighth and ninth columns, headed M and S, closely correspond to those in the sixth column, headed 1908.

The grouping according to country may be studied in four ways. First, place of birth, to determine the effect of heredity or nationality. Second, education, as indicating the relative efficiency of different colleges or universities. Third, residence, indicating perhaps the best opportunities for work. Fourth, occupation, showing which universities have attracted the greater number of men of eminence. The third form of grouping only was considered in the former paper and is given there in Table III. Three of the European members, represented in Table II., have called my attention to the importance of the first form of grouping. It is not always easy to determine the place of birth, and in a few cases the nationality has been assumed to be the same as that indicated by residence. The most striking case of change is that of the United States. Of the six residents, members of 7, 6, 5, 4, 3 and 3 of the seven national societies, the three members of 7, 6 and 4 societies were born in other countries. The argument in the former paper, that better opportunities for advanced work should be furnished in this country, is thus greatly strengthened. Three of the residents in England were born in Scotland, or as many as in the entire United States. Holland is increased from three to five. The order accord-