Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 89.djvu/937

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Popular Science Monthly

��A Water- Barrel Elevator in a Well

AN' engineer in southern Cali- lornia has tigured out the bimplc but useful ^m«» device of a water- barrel elevator, on which he rides to and innw his work in a well 210 ft. from the surface. Two men formerly on the job lost their lives riding down in a large bucket lowered by a windlass. The water- barrel elevator was constructed in the following manner. Heavy iron bands were put around the barrel, and a bail with a swivel to engage a wire cable that runs through a pulley above was fastened on.

The top of the barrel has an opening through which it is filled, and a faucet near the bottom allows for drainage. On the other end of the cable hangs a counterweight that, taken with the weight of the cable, almost balances the weight of the barrel and the engineer. A little water is taken on for ballast as he starts slowly downward. In descending, it is necessary to have the faucet turned on enough to allow for the increas- ing weight of the cable as it passes over the pulley to the side on which the descent is being made.

After reaching the landing, the engineer fastens the barrel to a hook. When he wishes to return he lets the water out and rises to the top.

This well is 300 ft. deep. The shaft measuring 6 by 8 ft., extends down 210 ft. to a landing, where an engine and motor are placed. The engine was originally used for power to run a centrifugal pump, but since a high-power line has been installed it has been found cheaper to place a loo-H.P. motor, making Q50 revolutions per minute, directly on the shaft of the pump, which hangs suspended 50 ft. beneath the

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���On one end of the cable hangs a counterweight which almost balances the weight of the water- barrel carrying the en- gineer. An engine and motor are installed at the bottom of the shaft

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surface of the water. It has

three steps or vanes, and raises no in. of water through a 6-in. discharge-pipe into a tank on the surface.

��Secret of Success in Filing Cross- Cut Saws

TU keep the cutting-teeth e\en and the points keen and smooth as a razor-edge is the main point in filing cross- cut saws. A rough-edged point is almost sure to break oft in hard-grained wood, gnarls or knots. If saw-teeth points will stand the first two hours' work after filing, then they are worn smooth by the action on the wood and will not be likely to break at all.

The rakers must be swaged and adjusted so as to plough out all wood cut by cutting- teeth in strips or shavings from J^ to 4 in. long although in green hardwoods, spruce and cedar the shavings will be much longer. Spruce sha\ings have been found to be 11 to 14 in. long. The idea is to eliminate all fine sawdust, if possible. Fine sawdust is a sure sign of a slow-cutting saw and a poor filer. Otten the saw is blamed when the filer and sometimes the operator is at fault. A filer should be able to put a fine cutting point on any saw that has good material in it.

A saw that is so glossy and hard that it will not swage should have the temper drawn with a pair of thick, red-hot tongs. If possible all raker- teeth should be softer than the cutting-teeth. They will give better satisfaction and will be easier on the file ; for a file will cut nicely on the bevel-stroke used on a cutting-tooth long after it has ceased to be of use on the hard horizontal stroke required in sharpening a raker, which must ha\c a perfectly square chisel cutting-bit so as to plough out the sawdust.

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