Popular Science Monthly
��An Easily Constructed Pan for Sterilizing Dairy Utensils
WHEN dairy utensils are sterilized by steam all bacteria and disease germs which may be upon them are destroyed and, therefore, milk and cream when placed in these utensils will keep much longer. A very efficient and inexpensive steam- sterilizing plant for the small dairy can be made as follows: An ordinary' roasting-pan 20 in. long, 14 in. wide, top measurement, and 3 in. deep, is used for the steam gen- erator. The cover is in three parts; the lower part, fitting closely over the pan, is covered with asbestos, upon which is placed the upper part, the latter being the same width as the pan, but 3 in. shorter at each end. It is made as follows: A sheet of hea\y galvanized iron is cut large enough to cover the top of the roasting pan, allowing a little to overlap the edge. Flanges are soldered beneath this cover so that they will meet the edge of the pan.
���The parts of the sterilizer for the dairy, made with a roasting pan as a base
thus making a tight cover. A hole is cut in the center of the cover 1 3^ in. in diameter and a round galvanized-iron pipe 43^ in. in height and i3^ in. in diameter is soldered in it. The cover should then be insulated by covering with a piece of asbestos board 5/16 in. thick. A hole is cut in the center of this piece to allow the steam-outlet pipe to pass through. Then for the upper part make a shallow pan of galvanized iron 14 in. square with sides ^ in. high. Cut a hole 1 3^ in. in diameter and fit the pan on top of the asbestos, allowing the steam- outlet pipe to extend through the center hole. When the pan is pressed down close to the asbestos, solder it to the steam-outlet pipe which passes through it. Four strips of stiff galvanized iron ^ in. wide are soldered to the pan. These should extend 5^ in. above the bottom of the pan and should run from a distance of i in. from the corners to i in. from the steam-outlet in the center. A section through the cover is illustrated.
��In case asbestos cannot be obtained, paper may be used instead. Pack the papers tight to a thickness of ^-g in. over galvanized iron and cover with another iron sheet, soldering all edges together to
��STEAM OUTLET PJP£
���Section through the cover of the roasting pan showing asbestos board used for insulation
make absolutely tight seams. This will form an insulated cover ^g in. thick to take the place of the asbestos. The con- struction of both covers is ver\' similar.
The other part of the sterilizer consists of a galvanized-iron box with a removable cover, which has a handle on the top. This box has no bottom. The 14-in. shallow pan on the asbestos over the cover of the roasting-pan forms the base of the box. The sides should be made separate, 11 in. high. These should fit tightly in the shallow pan. On one side of the box at the top a wire should be attached, ^^ in. from the top and 3^ in. from the side. The cover for the box should be made large enough to extend over the sides and fit closely. A two-burner wickless kerosene stove will give excellent results for a heater.
Sterilization is not a substitute for wash- ing. All utensils should be rinsed in cold water, then washed thoroughly with hot water and washing powder so that they are well cleaned before sterilization. Water at the depth of i in. in the pan will furnish steam at a temperature of 211 deg. F. for about 50 minutes. If the sterilizer is operated for a long period, water should be
��LAYER OP PAPER
The same construction of a cover for the
sterilizer with paper used instead of asbestos
added to make up for loss by evaporation. The temperature of the steam as it comes from the outlet pipe must be at least 295 deg. F. and preferably 210 to 211 deg. Cans, pails, covers, and strainer-cloths must be steamed for fully 5 minutes. Longer steaming will do no harm, but it is