Page:Pre-Aryan Tamil Culture.djvu/34

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32 terior, heart breadth. 4 ladie for, where a small holding of a rice-field may well be cultivated by its owner and arable land may continue to be sub-divide into little plots for generations, pasture-land cannot thus be subc.vided, for grassfields below a minimum size are unfit for pasturing a herd. Hence the joint-family system became a necessity. The patriarch of a tribe thus acquired great influence and became its king. Hence the word Ko, cowherd, came to be applied to a king when kingship evolved. The house where the king resided was the Kottai. As the royal power increased, as the science of warfare developed, the royal residenice, Kottai, became a fort. The fort was surrounded by strong walls, aran :2 hence the fort was called arannzanai; 9 aran4 originally meant both beauty and defence, and hence came to be applied to the walls of a fortress, also called madil. These walls were made of mud, mixed with boiled ragi flour and were so strong and elastic that they could resist battering very much better than inelastic brick or stone walls. In the Tinnevelly district there exists even to-day many a madil made after the ancient recipe, which are very difficult to pull down. The fort was surrounded by an agal, agappa,' or aga?i, 8 a moat, (from ago, to dig, whence the following Tamil words are derived, Agam io home, inside, mind, the inner life, love, etc., Agakkal, 11 heart-wood, agadu, 12 inside, agan2,1% interior, heart-wood, also a ricefield dug out of the soil, agappu, 14 depth, agalam, 15 breadth, agal,16 a bowl, agavai, 17 internal quality, agal, 18 to dig), agappaz, 19 a ladle scooped out. The agal was also called udu, 20 odai,21 kayam, 22 keni,2% parigam, 24 parigai, 25 purisai26 and pamburi,27 (that which surrounds a fort as closely as the skin round a snake). The wealth of names for the moat shows that it was a very familiar object to the ancient Tamils. The entrance to the fort was called Kotti28 and the batter, i.e., receding slope from the ground upwards behind a wall, topped by a flat platform, Kottalam.29 Nail30 is the name of another part of a fortification : what it means is not known clearly. Within the royal residence there were many rooms, each called arai, 31 (from aru, 32 to cut off), a portion of the house walled off from other portions for special purposes. One of these rooms was the store-room, Kottarai, 33 or Koffadi, 34 (whence perhaps was derived the Sanskrit word Koshta). The state-room was the Koluvaraz-35 Or Koluclichavadi, 38 where the king sat in state on occasions of ceremonial. This was called koluviruttal, 37 or Virriruttal.38 The Koluchchavadi was no doubt decorated with flags39 (kodi, 40 tugil, 41 togai,42 Satti, 43 kattigai, 44 kadali, us on these occasions, as well as with flowers and bunting, flowers and leaves playing a large part in South Indian life as will be shown later. On such formal occasions, the king wore a crown. As the crown was called mudi, 48 band, we may be sure that it was a band 1Gerle L. Another early word for a palace was Koil, (Comudu) which, after the rise of the grand modern temples, became restricted to Gods' houses. அரண். அரண்மனை. *அரண் மதில், அகல். 7அகப்பா . அகழி. sy. 10 d. 11 ***r. 129 . 13 str. 1 &04. 15 . 16 wed, 17 sa. 18 gadu. 19 V OU. 202.. 21 SL. 22. u. 23 sesoft. 2+isu. 25 diena. 2041 . 27 ur d. 280 _, 29Qsrs scru. 30grud. 31 D. 32 . 33 OrLp. 340&r L . 350erve . 30 Qerri-4. 37 ere du. 388 . 3° Flags used to decorate a street were called vidangan (L ). Grup 42தோகை +3&5 . 40 41