Page:Pre-Aryan Tamil Culture.djvu/44

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42 kunyavar, 1 kuliyar, 2 kolaiñar, 3 savarar, 4 Silavar, 5 Sillar, 6 ttyar, 7 pullar, pulaiñar, maravar, 10 marudar, 11 vēdar, 12 showing how widespread that profession was. They were also employed as policemen, armed with the bow and the sharp arrow.13 TOWNS AND VILLAGES : HOUSES Round the Kottai where the king resided, grew the pettai, 14 (from pe, 15 vulgar, whence is derived pedai, 16 cominon people, the poor, pey, 17 the wild plant, also goblin). Naturally the followers of each trade gravitated towards each other and each principal profession was confined to a single pēţtai; there were thus many suburbs around a town, separated from each other. These pēţtais were each surrounded by rice-fields or gardens. There are many words to indicate a house, such as vīdu, 18 agam, 19 il, 20 illam, 21 serbu, 22 patti, 23 manai, 24 vayin, 25 besides the compound words uraiyu28 and pukkil. 27 The houses of richer men were called madam28 (whence perhaps madi, 29 upper story) or maligai30 from the root mal,31 great. They were built almost entirely of timber up to about twelve centuries ago. The following words relating to parts of a house may be noted : iyappu, 32 iraz, 23 valavu, 34 talvāram, 35 sloping roof; mungil, 38 muryam, 37 courtyard, inside or outside a house; the coinpound word nilamurranz, 38 a flat roof on which one can walk up and down ; uttiram, 39 tūlam, *0 beam surruvari,41 tal, 42 tudai, 43 mugadu, 44 vidangam, 45 beam projecting beyond a wall. In front of the houses was the tinnai46 a raised and covered platform, which served the purposes of a drawing-room and bed-room for the day and even for the night. Before the finnaż, was the kuradu, 47 open platform, flanked by the offuttinnai.48 The walls, the tinnai and the floor of the house were no doubt polished like a mirror or black-marble, the cement being compounded of clay, charcoal and cattle-dung, man, 49 kari, 50 and sani, S. and applied to the surface wet and rubbed over for hours with a bit of flattened quartz, an art which is fast dying out. The entrance to the house was not flush with street, as there was a vāyilpadi, 52 door-step. It was provided with a wooden frame work, nilai, 53 and a door, kadavui, 54 also called aranam, 55 aravam, 58 kappu, 57 tott2,58 pudavu, 59 väri, 60 secured by a wooden bolt and heavily carved outside, as they are even to-day in houses not ruined by modern civilization. The houses were provided with windows, salaram, 61 sannal, 62 pala ganz, 83 being, as the name implied, a manyeyed lattice window. Behind the door ran a narrow passage, idazkali, 64 or nadai, 65 which led into the house. The houses were provided with குன்றவர். கூனியர். கொகாஞா. +சவார். சிலவர். சிேல்லர். 78ur. .yawi yur. 10 put. 11 Csi. 14.L. 13கூர்நல் அம்பின் கொடுவில் கூளியர். Malaipadukadām, 422. 1*CULOL. 15Cu 16 Gus. 17 Guu. 1836. 19 . 20 . 21 . 22C-roy. 23urs. 2+0 r. 25 avr. 26. pr. 274*&. The houses of Brāhmaṇas were given the Sanskrit name of Aharan (55) and the street where they lived akkirähāram ( rres.) 28 pr . 29.04. 30.0rcos 31 or dr. 32 04 37 p. 3*wr4. 35 rwarrid. 36 rev. 376 pp. 38wrooppa, 98 r. o greut. 1 #pcorn. S . + L. * cem. L*. 46 8. Door +7 p . 1694 estr 26cor. cbr. 50cm. 51 . 52 . 532. 5*34. 55 arb. 38. rob. 57&růy. 58C SL4.. Seyscy. 60ari. 61 rrå. 82 drar du. 63 . 64 Qol.a. 65. L.