61 tên and tinai mal being a favourite combination ; vellama, akkāram3 jaggery, was substituted for honey in Marudam, sugar was not freely used, it being originally a product imported from China; there is no idukuri name for it in Sanskrit or Tamil ; Sanskrit sarkkara (whence European names of sugar are derived) as weil as Tamil ayir, sugar, originally meant sand and were, by metonymy, extended to jaggery refined into a powdery form. Jaggery was manufactured by boiling down the juice of the sugar-cane, karumbus, also called kalais, kannal?, velals, to molasses, tēralo, tênpaguio, kulambuli, anam, 12 and cooled in pots or wooden moulds, achchu. Milk and milk products were used largely. The chief milk products were edu13, cream, tayir14, peruguis, niusaru16, curdled milk, mor17, arumbam 18, alai19, machchigai2o, muśar21, curdled milk from which butter has been churned out, venney22, venkatti23, butter, and ney 24, ghi. It is curious that though ghi is clarified butter, the name for the latter is derived from the former, for venney is but white ghi. The cause of this order of naming the original article from the derived one is not quite clear ; probably as butter cannot keep without getting rancid in tropical climates, it was never stored, but immediately after it was churned out, it was turned into ghi and the necessity for a name for the intermediate product was not felt for a long time. That in the matter of food Aryan India and Tamil India had absolutely the same customs is proved by the fact that meat of all kinds was eaten both in the North and the South and by the following account of Arya food, other than meat. Of the animal food derived from the living animal, milk 25 sometimes mixed with honey 26 brought by toiling bees 27, ghi28, butter?9 and curds 30 were consumed. Yava is frequently mentioned in the sense of corn in general or barley, (Wheat and barley were the grains used by the Aryas in addition to the South Indian ones). Rice, barley, beans and sesamum were the chief vegetable foodstuffs of the day.31 Grain was eaten parched 3 2 and made into cakes33 or boiled in water34 or in milk.35 Meal boiled with curd into Karambha 36 and gruel, 37 i.e., parched meal boiled in milk were other forms of food. ... As now hot freshly cooked food was preferred 38 to cold food. Fruits were also eaten.39 Food was served on leaf-platters, 40 the lotus leaf being commonly used for the purpose. Skins filled with honey 41 or curds, jars42 of honey, 43 rice husked by servant-girls44 and stored in earthern vessels 45 and flour obtained by grinding corn in mill stones, 46 were stocked in houses. 47 This shows that the difference between Arya and Dasyu was neither racial nor cultural but only one of cult. L -puu, other than meat. Of the said e between were stocksselsesome tice 20R. VISA V . 35 1தேனுந்தினைமாவும். வெல்லம், அக்காரம். +அயிர். கரும்பு. கழை. சன்னல், வேழம். *Gok. Togger6. 1Là. 14 Grò, 1 . 14P. 13 TG. 1 wear. 17Guru. 18 . 1920 &. 21 cori. 230. 0 23 .4. **Q.ů. 25R, V. x. 49, 10. 26R. V. viii, 4, 8. 27R. V. X. 106, 9. 28R. V. iv. 58. 29Sarpis, A. V. ix. 6, 41. 3°R. V. vi. 57, 2. 31A. V. vi. 140, 4. 92 Dhånd, R. V. iii. 35, 3. 33 Apūpam, R.V. iii. 52,7; Purodasam, A. V. xii. 4, 35. **Odanam, A. V. iii. 34, 35. 35R. V. viii. 66, 10. 36 A. V. iv. 7, 2. 37 Mantha, A. V. x. 6, 2. 38R. V. x. 79, 3. 3°R. V. i. 90, 8. 40A. V. viii. 10, 27. +1R. V. iv. 45, 3, 4, 42R. V. vi. 49, 18. -SR. V. i. 117, 6. A. V. xii. 3, 13. +5A. V. vi, 142, 1. 46 Drishat, A. V. ii. 31, 1. *7P. T. Srinivas Iyengar, Life in Ancient India, p. 49.