not hereditary, but was selected or designed by the individual using it, like a modern book-plate. Also spelled 'impresa' and 'imprese.' An Elizabethan description of one follows: 'An Imprese with a circle, and a hand with a sharpe stile pointing towards the center with this motto: Hic labor, hoc opus.' (Edmonds: Observations on Cæsar's Commentaries. 1604. VII, vii. II. 60.)
III. i. 43. Glendower. A learned and powerful Welsh gentleman, the strongest personality of his time in Wales. He had made no forays upon the English before 1400, and was not in open rebellion until a year later. Some editors suspect l. 43 of being interpolated, because of the anachronism and because l. 42 and l. 44 rime.
III. ii. 1. Barkloughly Castle. Not identified. Holinshed has 'Barclowlie.' The Monk of Evesham has 'Hertlowli,' which may mean Harlech. Historically Richard landed at Milford Haven in the westernmost part of South Wales, between July 22 and 25, before the events of Sc. i.
III. ii. 29–32. These lines, omitted from the Folio, are very obscure as printed in the Quartos, but with 'if,' inserted in l. 30 by Pope, and with modern punctuation, they seem to mean, 'if Heaven is willing and we are unwilling (i.e., hang back), we refuse heaven's offer, the proffered means, etc.' Even within the play, Aumerle feels called upon to explain them to the king.
III. ii. 117. double-fatal yew. Fatal in two ways, the yew having poisonous leaves and being the favorite wood for long-bows.
III. ii. 118. bills. A medieval weapon having a long wooden handle fitted at one end with a broad blade or axe-like head.
III. ii. 166. self and vain conceit. Vain fancies about himself. 'Conceit' never has its modern meaning in Shakespeare.