prospect of permanent union into a homogeneous nationality.
King Malcolm diplomatically endeavoured to conciliate his Norse subjects by marrying Ingibiorg, widow of his ancient enemy Thorfinn, and by her he had a son, Duncan. She must have died before 1067, for in that year Child Eadgar, son of Eadward Aetheling, flying with his mother and sisters before the Normans, sought refuge in the Scottish Court. Malcolm, having by his first marriage put the Norsemen in good humour, now flattered the Anglo-Saxons of his realm by taking as his second consort the Princess Margaret, sister of Eadgar Aetheling. This involved him in prolonged hostilities with King William, for Malcolm championed the cause of his brother-in-law, whom the northern English regarded as their rightful king. From this point may be traced the original cause of subsequent long centuries of war between England and Scotland ; for King William, having invaded Scotland, forced Malcolm to become his man, taking his son Duncan as hostage and granting Malcolm lands in England as further security for good faith.
In 1091 a reconciliation was effected between William Rufus, Malcolm, and Eadgar Aetheling; Malcolm doing fresh homage for his English possessions, which, according to some writers, consisted only of lands in the south ; according to others, also included Lothian. But the good understanding did not last long. Malcolm haying reopened hostilities was defeated and slain near Alnwick in 1093, and with