Page:Robert the Bruce and the struggle for Scottish independence - 1909.djvu/61

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1286 A.D.]
The Making of Scotland.

disposed of (for he could not hold his own son to ransom), the English King, laughing, said, "Take him to his nurse!"

Notwithstanding his defeat, David not only retained the earldom of Huntingdon, but stipulated that his son Henry should hold the earldom of Northumberland under Stephen. Thus the King of Scots and his sons were both vassals of the Crown of England. On the other hand, Stephen, then at civil war with Queen Matilda, was not strong enough to deprive David of Cumberland and Carlisle, which had again become part of the Scottish kingdom.

King David I. died in 1153. His successor, Malcolm IV., surrendered both Northumberland and Cumberland to Henry II., but indemnified himself by the subjugation of Moray, where the Celtic population had become much intermixed with a numerous settlement of Flemings. The old Picto-Norse province of Galloway, too, comprising the modern counties of Wigtown and Kirkcudbright, with south Ayrshire, was now brought into final subjection. For, when King Malcolm went to fight the battles of Henry II. in France, which, as his liegeman for Lothian and his English estates, he was bound to do, he was summoned back in haste, and returned to find his kingdom in confusion. The Galwegians were in open revolt under their hereditary lord, Fergus, endeavouring to place William, great-grandson of their lady Ingibiorg on the throne of Scotland. Twice Malcolm's expeditions were repelled, but the third time success crowned his arms, and Galloway was finally brought into the realm, though