xii gaina sOtras.
that Siddh&rtha was but a baron ; for he is frequently called merely Kshatriya — his wife Trlrald is, so far as I remember, never styled Devi, queen, but always Kshatriy<L#i. Whenever the Gn&trika Kshatriyas are men- tioned, they are never spoken of as Siddh&rtha's ScLmantas or dependents, but are treated as his equals. From all this it appears that Siddhirtha was no king, nor even the head of his clan, but in all probability only exercised the degree of authority which in the East usually falls to the share of land- owners, especially of those belonging to the recognised aristocracy of the country. Still he may have enjoyed a greater influence than many of his fellow-chiefs ; for he is recorded to have been highly connected by marriage. His wife Trualct was sister to A'etfaka, king of Vaurali 1 . She is called Vaideht or Videhadattcl 2 , because she belonged to the reigning line of Videha.
Buddhist works do not mention, for aught I know, A'efoka, king of VaLr&li ; but they tell us that the government of Vesctli was vested in a senate composed of the nobility and presided over by a king, who shared the power with a viceroy and a general-in-chief a . In Gaina books we still have traces of this curious government of the Li££Aavis ; for in the Nirayivali Sutri 4 it is related that king A'e/aka, whom Kunika, al. A^4ta^atru, king of ATampi, prepared to attack with a strong army, called together the eighteen confederate kings of Klri and Ko^ala, the Li^Mavis and Mallakis, and asked them whether they would satisfy Kuni- ka's demands or go to war with him. Again, on the death of Mahivira the eighteen confederate kings, mentioned above, instituted a festival to be held in memory of that event 5 , but no separate mention is made of A'e/aka, their pretended sovereign. It is therefore probable that A'e/aka was simply one of these confederate kings and of equal power with them. In addition to this, his power was checked by the
See Kalpa Sutra, my edition, p. 1 13. -Ke/aka is called the maternal uncle of
- See Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, §110; A*aranga Sutra II, 15, § 15.
- Tumour in the Journal of the Royal As. Soc. of Bengal, VII, p. 992.
- Ed. Warren, p. 27.
See Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas.
Digitized by VjOOQIC