him as a prophet of the £ainas, Vardhamdna or Gn&- trrputra 1 : — Suparsva Siddhartha Trisala or tfe/aka Subhadra i Videhadatta king of Vaisall I Nandivardhana Vardhamana Sudarsani Bimbisara fellana married to king of Magadha Yasoda m | Anoggk m. to Kunika or A^atasatru Gamali | | Udayin, founder of Seshavatt. Pa/aliputra.
I do not intend to write a full life of MaMvira, but to collect only such details which show him at once a distinct historical person, and as different from Buddha in the most important particulars. Vardhamdna was, like his father, a Klryapa. He seems to have lived in the house of his parents till they died, and his elder brother, Nandivardhana, succeeded to what principality they had. Then, at the age of twenty-eight, he, with the consent of those in power, entered the spiritual career, which in India, just as the church in Roman Catholic countries, seems to have offered a field for the ambition of younger sons. For twelve years he led a life of austerities, visiting even the wild tribes of the country called R&dft$L. After the first year he went about naked 2 . From the end of these twelve years of pre- paratory self-mortification dates Vardham&na's Kevaliship. Since that time he was recognised as omniscient, as a prophet of the Gainas, or a Tirthakara, and had the titles Cina, MahAvira, &c, which were also given to £&kyamuni. The last thirty years of his life he passed in teaching his religious syAem and organising his order of ascetics, which, as we have seen above, was patronised or at least counte- nanced chiefly by those princes with whom he was related through his mother, viz. isTe/aka, 5re«ika, and Kunika, the
Nataputta in Pali and Prakrit. The Buddhists call him Niga/i/Aa Nataputta,
i. e. Gnatnputra the Nirgrantha or Gaina monk.
- This period of his life is the subject of a sort of ballad incorporated in the
AHranga Sutra (I, 8).