Page:Sacred Books of the East - Volume 25.djvu/152

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11. From that (first) cause, which is indiscernible, eternal, and both real and unreal, was produced that male (Purusha), who is famed in this world (under the appellation of) Brahman.

12. The divine one resided in that egg during a whole year, then he himself by his thought (alone) divided it into two halves;

13. And out of those two halves he formed heaven and earth, between them the middle sphere, the eight points of the horizon, and the eternal abode of the waters.

14. From himself (âtmanah) he also drew forth the mind, which is both real and unreal, likewise from the mind egoism, which possesses the function of self-consciousness (and is) lordly ;

15. Moreover, the great one, the soul, and all (products) affected by the three qualities, and, in their order, the five organs which perceive the objects of sensation.



11. All our commentators except Râgh., whose explanation is wide off the mark, understand by the '(First) cause' the supreme soul. Sadasadâtmaka, 'who is both real and unreal,' means according to Medh., Gov., and Kull. 'who is existent or real, because he can be known through the Veda and Vedânta, but non-existent or unreal, as it were, because he cannot be perceived by the senses.' Nand's explanation, 'who is both the real, the efficient cause and the unreal the products, matter and the rest,' seems, however, preferable. He says, sad iti kâranam asad iti prakrityâdi kâryam. Regarding the ancient Vedic term Purusha, 'the male' or 'spirit,' see Muir, Sanskrit Texts, V, pp. 367–377.

12. Kull. explains the term 'a year' by 'a year of Brahman.' But Medh. and Gov., who say that a human year is meant, are in accordance with Satapatha-brâhmana XI, 1, 6, 2.

13. The number 'eight' is obtained by adding to the four cardinal points, 'the intermediate ones,' north-east, south-east, &c.

14–15. The commentators offer two entirely different explanations of these two difficult verses. According to Medh., Gov., Kull., and Râgh. they describe the production of the Tattvas, the principles of the Sâmkhya system, the first three of which, Mahat, Ahamkâra, and Manas, have been placed in an inverted order. Though Manu clearly states (verse 14) that the creator drew the Manas (which they take to mean the internal organ) from the âtman (i. e. according to Medh. and Gov. 'from the Pradhâna.' which is his own shape [tatpradhânâd âtmanah svasvarûpât, Medh.], or according to Gov., Kull., and Râgh. 'from the Paramâtman,' the supreme soul, or according to another explanation of Râgh. 'from himself' [svasmât | gîvasya bhogârtham vâ]), that he drew the Ahamkâra, egoism, from the Manas, and that he afterwards created the mahântam âtmânam, 'the great one, the soul;' (i. e. according to Medh. the Mahat which is called the soul because like the soul it is found in all bodies, or according to Kull. the Mahat which is called the soul because it is produced from the soul or is useful to the soul), yet they think that it must be understood that the Mahat was produced first, from it the Ahamkâra, and from the latter the Manas. The next term sarvâni trigunâni, 'all the products modified by the three qualities,' they refer to all products or evolutes named and to be named hereafter. They are thus obliged to disregard the ka, 'and,' at the end of verse 15 a, and Râgh. states distinctly that ka indicates there a stress to be laid on the preceding word (kakâro 'vadhâranârthah). Finally, Gov., Kull., and Râgh. are of opinion that the third ka, 'and,' at the end of verse 15 b indicates that the organs of action and the subtile elements have to be added in accordance with the doctrine of the Sâmkhya, while Medh. holds that the subtile elements alone have to be understood.