fire and are both good and evil, the latter being generally called ‘Ifrît.’ Their abode is Mount Qâf, the mountain chain which encircles the world. These are the creatures over whom Solomon held control, and a tribe of whom were converted to Islâm by Mohammedʼs preaching on his return from Tâʼif.
The two classes of beings, human and superhuman, by which the world is inhabited are called Eth-thaqalân, ‘the two weighty matters,’ or el ʼHâlamûn, ‘the worlds,’ as in the expression in the Opening Chapter, ‘Lord of the worlds.’
Heaven, according to the Qurʼân and the traditions, consists of seven divisions:
Gannat al ʿHuld (Chapter ⅩⅩⅤ, 16), the Garden of Eternity.
Dâr as Salâm (Chapter Ⅵ, 127), the Abode of Peace.
Dâr al Qarâr (Chapter ⅩⅬ, 42), the Abode of Rest.
Gannat ʼHadn (Chapter Ⅸ, 72), the Garden of Eden.
Gannat al Mâʼwâ (Chapter ⅩⅩⅫ, 19), the Garden of Resort.
Gannat an Naʼhîm (Chapter Ⅵ, 70), the Garden of Pleasure.
Gannat al ʼHilliyûn (Chapter ⅬⅩⅩⅩⅢ, 18), the Garden of the Most High.
Gannat al Firdaus (Chapter ⅩⅧ, 107), the Garden of Paradise.
Of the presumed sensual character of the Muslim paradise much has been written. It appears, however, from the Qurʼân, to be little more than an intense realisation of all that a dweller in a hot, parched, and barren land could desire, namely, shade, water, fruit, rest, and pleasant companionship and service.
Hell contains also seven divisions:
Gehennum (Chapter ⅩⅨ, 44), Gehenna.
Lathâ (Chapter ⅬⅩⅩ, 15), the Flaming Fire.
Hutamah (Chapter ⅭⅣ, 4), the Raging Fire that splits everything to pieces.
Saʼhîr (Chapter Ⅳ, 11), the Blaze.
Saqar (Chapter ⅬⅣ, 58), the Scorching Fire.
Gahîm (Chapter Ⅱ, 113), the Fierce Fire.
Hâwiyeh (Chapter ⅭⅠ, 8), the Abyss.