Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/180

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

a. Anaḍúdbhyas (AV., once) is the only middle case-form quotable from the older language. But compounds showing the middle stem — as anaḍucchata, anaḍudarha — are met with in Brāhmaṇas etc.

b. The corresponding feminine stem (of very infrequent occurrence) is either anaḍuhī́ (ÇB.) or anaḍvāhī́ (K. MS.).

405. The root sah overcome has in the Veda a double irregularity: its s is changeable to even after an a-vowel — as also in its single occurrence as an independent adjective (RV., tváṁ ṣā́ṭ) — while it sometimes remains unchanged after an i or u-vowel; and its a is either prolonged or remains unchanged, in both strong and weak cases. The quotable forms are: -ṣā́ṭ, -ṣā́ham or -sā́ham or -sáham, -sáhā, -sā́he or -sáhe, -ṣā́has or -ṣáhas or -sáhas; -sáhā (du.); -ṣā́has or -sáhas.

406. The compound avayā́j (√yaj make offering) a certain priest or (BR.) a certain sacrifice is said to form the nom. and voc. sing avayā́s, and to make its middle cases from avayás.

a. Its only quotable form is avayā́s f. (RV. and AV., each once). If the stem is a derivative from ava+√yaj conciliate, avayā́s is probably from ava + √, which has the same meaning. But sadhamā́s (RV., once) and purodā́s (RV., twice) show a similar apparent substitution in nom. sing. of the case-ending s after long ā for a final root-consonant (d and ç respectively). Compare also the alleged çvetavās (above, 403).

407. Compounds with añc or ac. The root ac or añc makes, in combination with prepositions and other words, a considerable class of familiarly used adjectives, of quite irregular formation and inflection, in some of which it almost loses its character of root, and becomes an ending of derivation.

a. A part of these adjectives have only two stem-forms: a strong in añc (yielding an̄, from an̄ks, in nom. sing. masc.), and a weak in ac; others distinguish from the middle in ac a weakest stem in c, before which the a is contracted with a preceding i or u into ī or ū.

b. The feminine is made by adding ī to the stem-form used in the weakest cases, and is accented like them.

408. As examples of inflection we may take prā́ñc forward, east, pratyáñc opposite, west, víṣvañc going apart.

N. V. prā́n̄ prā́k pratyán̄ pratyák víṣvan̄ víṣvak
A. prā́ñcam prā́k pratyáñcam pratyák víṣvañcam víṣvak
I. prā́cā pratīcā́ víṣūcā
D. prā́ce pratīcé víṣūce
Ab. G. prā́cas pratīcás víṣūcas
L. prā́ci pratīcí víṣūci
N. A. V. prā́ñcāu prā́cī pratyáñcāu pratīcī́ víṣvañcāu víṣūcī
I. D. Ab. prā́gbhyām pratyágbhyām víṣvagbhyām
G. L. prā́cos pratīcós víṣūcos