Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/188

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a. The RV. has once the weak form maghónas in nom. pl.

b. Parallel with this is found the stem maghávant (division E); and from the latter alone in the older language are made the middle cases: thus, maghavadbhis, maghavatsu, etc. (not maghavabhis etc.).

429. a. Stems in a, ma, va, parallel with those in an, man, van, and doubtless in many cases derived from those through transitional forms, are frequent in both the earlier and the later language, particularly as final members of compounds.

b. A number of an-stems are more or less defective, making a part of their forms from other stems. Thus:

430. a. The stem áhan n. day is in the later language used only in the strong and weakest cases, the middle (with the nom. sing., which usually follows their analogy) coming from áhar or áhas: namely, áhar nom.-acc. sing., áhobhyām, áhobhis, etc. (PB. has aharbhis); but áhnā etc., áhni or áhani (or áhan), áhnī or áhanī, áhāni (and, in V., áhā).

b. In the oldest language, the middle cases áhabis, áhabhyas, áhasu also occur.

c. In composition, only ahar or ahas is used as preceding member; as final member, ahar, ahas, ahan, or the derivatives aha, ahna.

d. The stem ū́dhan n. udder exchanges in like manner, in the old language, with ū́dhar and ū́dhas, but has become later an as-stem only (except in the fem ūdhnī of adjective compounds): thus, ū́dhar or ū́dhas, ū́dhnas, ū́dhan or ū́dhani, ū́dhabhis, ū́dhaḥsu. As derivative from it are made both ūdhanyà and ūdhasya.

431. The neuter stems akṣán eye, asthán bone, dadhán curds, sakthán thigh, form in the later language only the weakest cases, akṣṇā́, asthné, dadhnás, sakthní or saktháni, and so on; the rest of the inflection is made from stems in i, ákṣi etc.: see above, 343 i.

a. In the older language, other cases from the an-stems occur: thus, akṣā́ṇi, akṣábhis, and akṣasu; asthā́ni, asthábhis, and asthábhyas; sakthā́ni.

432. The neuter stems asán blood, yakán liver, çakán ordure, āsán mouth, udán water, doṣán fore-arm, yūṣán broth, are required to make their nom.-acc.-voc. in all numbers from the parallel stems ásṛj, yákṛt, çákṛt, āsyà, údaka (in older language udaká), dós, yūṣá, which are fully inflected.

a. Earlier occurs also the dual doṣáṇī.

433. The stems pánthan m. road is reckoned in the later language as making the complete set of strong cases, with the irregularity that the nom.-voc. sing. adds a s. The corresponding middle cases are made from pathí, and the weakest from path. Thus: