b. Or, the number to be added is compounded with `adhika` *redundant*, and the compound is either made to qualify the other number or is further compounded with it: thus, `pañcādhikaṁ çatam` or `pañcādhikaçatam` *105*. Of course, `ūna` *deficient* (as also other words equivalent to `ūna` or `adhika`) may be used in the same way: thus, `pañconaṁ çatam` 95, `ṣaṣṭiḥ pañcavarjitā` *55*; `çatam abhyadhikaṁ ṣaṣṭitaḥ` *160*.

c. Syntactical combinations are made at convenience: for example, `dáça çatáṁ ca` *110*; `çatám ékaṁ ca` *101*.

479. Another usual method (beginning in the Brāhmaṇas) of forming the odd numbers above 100 is to qualify the larger number by an adjective derived from the smaller, and identical with the briefer ordinal (below, 487): thus, `dvādaçáṁ çatám`, *112* (lit'ly *a hundred of a 12-sort*, or *characterised by 12*); `catuçcatvāriṅçáṁ çatám` *144*; `ṣaṭṣaṣṭáṁ çatám` *166*.

480. To multiply one number by another, among the higher or the lower denominations, the simplest and least ambiguous method is to make of the multiplied number a dual or plural, qualified by the other as any ordinary noun would be; and this method is a common one in all ages of the language. For example: `páñca pañcāçátas` *five fifties* (*250*); `náva navatáyas` *nine nineties* (*810*); `açītíbhis tisṛ́bhis` *with three eighties* (*240*); `páñca çatā́ni` *five hundreds*; `trī́ṇi sahásrāṇi` *three thousands*; `ṣaṣṭíṁ sahásrāṇi` *60,000*; `daça ca sahasrāṇy aṣṭāu ca çatāni` *10,800*: and, combined with addition, `trī́ṇi çatā́ni tráyastriṅçataṁ ca` *333*; `sahasre dve pañconaṁ çatam eva ca` *2095*.

a. In an exceptional case or two, the ordinal form appears to take the place of the cardinal as multiplicand in a like combination: thus, `ṣaṭtriṅçā́ṅç ca catúraḥ` (RV.) *36x4* (lit. four of the thirty-six kind); `trī́ṅr ekādaçā́n` (RV.) or `traya ekādaçāsaḥ` (ÇÇS. viii. 21. 1) *11x3*.

b. By a peculiar and wholly illogical construction, such a combination as `trīṇi ṣaṣṭiçatāni`, which ought to signify *480* (*3x100+60*), is repeatedly used in the Brāhmaṇas to mean *360* (*3x100+60*); so also `dvé catustriṅçé çaté` *234* (not *268*); `dvāṣaṣṭāni trīṇi çatāni` *362*; and other like cases. And even R. has `trayaḥ çataçatārdhāḥ` *350*.

481. But the two factors, multiplier and multiplied, are also, and in later usage more generally, combined into a compound (accented on the final); and this is then treated as an adjective, qualifying the numbered noun; or else its neuter or feminine (in `ī`) singular is used substantively: thus, `daçaçatā́s` *1000*; `ṣaṭçatāiḥ padātibhiḥ` (MBh.) *with 600 foot-soldiers*; `tráyastriṅçat triçatā́ḥ ṣaṭsahasrāḥ` (AV.) *6333*; `dviçatám` or `dviçatī́` *200*; `aṣṭādaçaçatī` *1800*.

a. In the usual absence of accentuation, there arises sometimes a question as to how a compound number shall be understood: whether `aṣṭaçatam`, for example, is `aṣṭáçatam` *108* or `aṣṭaçatám` *800*, and the like.