Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/236

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been validated.

551. Below are given, for convenience, in tabular form, the schemes of endings as accepted in the classical or later language: namely, a. the regular primary endings, used in the present indicative and the future (and the subjunctive in part); and b. the regular secondary endings, used in the imperfect, the conditional, the aorist, the optative (and the subjunctive in part); and further, of special schemes, c. the perfect endings (chiefly primary, especially in the middle); and d. the imperative endings (chiefly secondary). To the so-called imperative endings of the first person is prefixed the ā which is practically a part of them, though really containing the mode-sign of the subjunctive from which they are derived.

552. Further, a part of the endings are marked with an accent, and a part are left unaccented. The latter are those which never, under any circumstances, receive the accent; the former are accented in considerable classes of verbs, though by no means in all. It will be noticed that, in general, the unaccented endings are those of the singular active; but the 2d sing. imkerative has an accented ending; and, on the other hand, the whole series of 1st persons imperative, active and middle, have unaccented endings (this being a characteristic of the subjunctive formation which they represent).

553. The schemes of normal endings, then, are as follows:

a. Primary Endings.
active. middle.
s. d. p. s. d. p.
1 mi vás más é váhe máhe
2 si thás thá ā́the dhvé
3 ti tás ánti, áti ā́te ánte, áte
b. Secondary Endings.
1 am í, á váhi máhi
2 s tám thā́s ā́thām dhvám
3 t tā́m án, ús ā́tām ánta, áta, rán
c. Perfect Endings.
1 a é váhe máhe
2 tha áthus á ā́the dhvé
3 a átus ús é ā́te
d. Imperative Endings.
1 āni āva āma āi āvahāi āmahāi
2 dhí, hí, — tám svá ā́thām dhvám
3 tu tā́m ántu, átu tā́m ā́tām ántām, átām

554. In general, the rule is followed that an accented ending, if dissyllabic, is accented on its first syllable — and the constant union-vowels are regarded, in this respect, as integral parts of the endings. But the