disappear (the exceptions are given in 837 a). But the precative forms are nowhere common, excepting as made from √bhū; and from no other root is anything like a complete series of persons quotable (only bhūyāsva and bhūyāstām being wanting; and these two persons have no representative from any root). All together, active optative or precative forms are made in the older language from over fifty roots; and the epic and classical texts add them from hardly a dozen more: see further 925.
839. Imperative. Imperative forms of the root-aorist are not rare in the early language. In the middle, indeed, almost only the 2d sing. occurs: it is accented either regularly, on the ending, as kṛṣvá, dhiṣvá, yukṣvá, or on the root, as mátsva, yákṣva, váṅsva, rā́sva, sákṣva; dīṣva and māsva are not found with accent; the 2d pl. is represented by kṛdhvam, voḍhvam. In the active, all the persons (2d and 3d) are found in use; examples are: 2d sing., kṛdhí, vṛdhi, çagdhí, çrudhí, gadhi, yaṁdhí, gahi, māhi, sāhi, mogdhi; 3d sing., gaṁtu, dātu, aṣṭu, çrótu, sótu; 2d du., dātam, jitam, çaktam, çrutám, bhūtám, spṛtám, gatám, riktám, voḍham, sitam, sutám; 3d du., only gaṁtām, dātām, voḍhā́m; 2d pl., gātá, bhūtá, çruta, kṛta, gata, dāta, dhātana; 3d pl., only dhāntu, çruvantu. These are the most regular forms; but irregularities as to both accent and strengthening are not infrequent. Thus, strong forms in 2d du. and pl. are yaṁtám, varktam, vartam; kárta, gáṁta (once gáṁtá), yaṁta, vartta, heta, çróta, sóta; and, with tana, kártana, gáṁtana, yaṁtana, sotana, and the irregular dhetana (√dhā); in 3d du., gāṁtām. Much more irregular are yódhi (instead of yuddhí) from √yudh, and bodhí from both √budh and √bhū (instead of buddhí and bhūdhí). A single form (3d sing.) in tāt is found, namely çastāt. We find kṛdhi also later (MBh. BhP.).
a. As to 2d persons singular in si from the simple root used in an imperative sense, see above, 624.
840. In the oldest language, of the RV., are found a number of participles which must be reckoned as belonging to this formation.
a. In the active, they are extremely few: namely, kránt, citánt (?), gmánt, sthā́nt, bhidánt, vṛdhánt, dyutant- (only in composition), and probably ṛdhánt. And BhP. has mṛṣant (but probably by error, for mṛṣyant).
b. In the middle, they are in RV. much more numerous. The accent is usually on the final of the stem: thus, arāṇá, idhāṇá, krāṇá, juṣāṇá, tṛṣāṇá, nidāná, piçāná, pṛcāná, prathāná, budhāná, bhiyāná, manāná, mandāná, yujāná, rucāná, vipāná, vrāṇá, urāṇá, çubhāná, sacāná, suvāná or svāná, sṛjāná, spṛdhāná, hiyāná; — but sometimes on the root-syllable: thus, cítāna, cyávāna, rúhāṇa, úhāna (pres.?), vásāna, çúmbhāna; — while a few show both accentuations