1003. The same root is allowed to form its intensive stem in more than one way.
Thus, in the older language, dādr and dardṛ; dādhṛ and dardhṛ; cācal and carcar (and carcur); tartar (and tartur) and tarītṛ; jan̄gam and ganīgam; jan̄ghan and ghanīghan; pamphan and panīphan; marmṛj and marīmṛj; marmṛç and marīmṛç; varvṛt and varīvṛt; jarbhṛ and bharībhṛ; dodhū and davīdhū; nonu and navīnu; bābadh and badbadh.
1004. The model of normal intensive inflection is the present-system of the reduplicating conjugation-class (642 ff.); and this is indeed to a considerable extent followed, in respect to endings, strengthening of stem, and accent. But deviations from the model are not rare; and the forms are in general of too infrequent occurrence to allow of satisfactory classification and explanation.
a. The most marked irregularity is the frequent insertion of an ī between the stem and ending. According to the grammarians, this is allowed in all the strong forms before an ending beginning with a consonant; and before the ī a final vowel has guṇa-strengthening, but a medial one remains unchanged.
1005. We will take up the parts of the present-system in their order, giving first what is recognized as regular in the later language, and then showing how the formation appears in the earlier texts. As most grammarians do not allow a middle inflection, and middle forms are few even in the Veda, no attempt will be made to set up a paradigm for the middle voice.
1006. As example of inflection may be taken the root विद् vid know, of which the intensive stem is वेविद् vevid, or, in strong forms, वेवेद् véved.
a. Neither from this nor from any other root are more than a few scattering forms actually quotable.
|1. Present Indicative.|