example, in prātár early, and sanutár away; in dakṣiṇít with right hand, and cikitvít with consideration; in nūnám now, and nānānám variously. But the cases are in the main too rare and doubtful to be worth notice here.
b. In the epics begin to be found a small class (about a dozen are quotable) of adverbs having the form of a repeated noun-stem with its first occurrence ending in ā and its second in i: e. g. hastāhasti hand to hand, rathārathi chariot against chariot, karṇākarṇi ear to ear.
c. The adverbs thus far described are almost never used prepositionally. Those of the next division, however, are in many instances so used.
1110. Case-forms used as Adverbs. A large number of adverbs are more or less evidently cases in form, made from stems which are not otherwise in use. Also many cases of known stems, pronominal or noun or adjective, are used with an adverbial value, being distinguished from proper cases by some difference of application, which is sometimes accompanied by an irregularity of form.
1111. The accusative is the case most frequently and widely used adverbially. Thus:
a. Of pronominal stems: as, yád if, when, that, etc.; tád then etc.; kím why, whether, etc.; idám now, here; adás yonder; and so on. Of like value, apparently, are the (mostly Vedic) particles kád, kám and kam (?), íd, cid (common at every period), smád and sumád, īm and sīm (by some regarded as still possessing pronoun-value), -kīm. Compounds with íd are céd if , néd lest, éd, svid, kuvíd; with cid, kū́cid; with -kīm, nákīm and mā́kīm and ā́kīm.
b. Of noun-stems: as, nā́ma by name; súkham happily; kā́mam at will, if you please; náktam by night; ráhas secretly; oṣám quickly (V.); and so on.
c. Of adjective stems, in unlimited numbers: as, satyám truly; cirám long; pū́rvam formerly; nítyam constantly; bhū́yas more, again; viçrabdham confidently; prakāçam openly; and so on.
d. The neuter singular is the case commonly employed in this way; and it is so used especially as made from great numbers of compound adjective stems, often from such as hardly occur, or are not at all found, in adjective use. Certain of these adverbial compounds, having an indeclinable as prior member, are made by the Hindu grammarians a special class of compounds, called avyayībhāva (1313).
e. But the feminine singular also is sometimes used, especially in the so-called adverbial endings of comparison, tarām and tamām, which are attached to particles (cf. 1119), and even (473 c) to verb-forms: