Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/438

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ṭhuyā́-, mithuyā́; — and urviyā́ (for urvyā́) and víçvyā (properly víçvayā) are more slightly irregular.

1113. The dative has only very seldom an adverbial use.

a. Examples are aparā́ya for the future (RV.; with changed accent); cirāya long; arthāya for the sake of; ahnāya presently.

1114. The ablative is not infrequently used adverbially. Thus:

a. Of pronominal stems: as, kásmāt why? akasmāt casually, unexpectedly; ā́t, tā́t, yā́t (V.: normal forms, instead of the pronominal asmāt etc.).

b. Of noun-stems: as, āsā́t near; ārā́t afar; balāt forcibly; kutūhalāt emulously; sakāçāt on the part of.

c. Oftenest, of adjective stems: as, dūrā́t afar; nīcā́t below; paçcā́t behind; sākṣā́t plainly, actually; samantāt completely; acirāt not long; pratyakṣatamāt (AB.) most obviously; pratyantāt (S.) to the end.

d. In a few instances, adverbially used ablatives likewise show a changed accent in the early language: thus, apākā́t from afar; amā́t from near by; sanā́t from of old (but instr. sánā); uttarā́t from the north; adharā́t below.

1115. The genitive is almost never used adverbially.

a. In the older language occur aktós by night, and vástos by day; later, cirasya long.

1116. The locative is sometimes used with adverbial value. Thus:

a. From noun and adjective stems: āké near; āré and dūré afar; abhisvaré behind; astamīké at home; ṛté without (prep.); ágre in front; sthāne suitably; sapadi immediately; -arthe and -kṛte (common in composition) for the sake of; aparī́ṣu in after time; ādāu first; rahasi in secret.

1117. Even a nominative form appears to be stereotyped into an adverbial value in (Vedic) kís, interrogative particle, and its compounds nákis and mā́kis, negative particles. And masc. nominatives from añc-stems (as parān̄ AB., nyān̄ Āpast.) are sometimes found used by substitution for neuters.

1118. Verbal Prefixes and kindred words. The verbal prefixes, described in the preceding chapter (1076 ff.), are properly adverbs, having a special office and mode of use in connection with verbal roots and their more immediate derivatives.

a. Their occasional looser connection with the verb has been noticed above (1084). In the value of general adverbs, however,