Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/499

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phéna); with u, vātula and vātūla windy (late: vā́ta); and mātula maternal uncle is a somewhat irregular formation from mātṛ́ mother.

b. In the later language are found a few adjectives in lu, always preceded by ā; examples are: kṛpālu and dayālu compassionate, īrṣyālu jealous, uṣṇālu heated, çayālu and svapnālu sleepy, lajjālu modest, lālālu drooling, çraddhālu trusting, krodhālu passionate. One or two such derivatives having a primary aspect were noticed at 1192 b.

1228. व va. A small number of adjectives have this ending (accented, added to an unaltered primitive).

a. Examples are: arṇavá billowy, keçavá hairy; rāsnāvá girded; añjivá slippery, çantivá tranquillizing, çraddhivá credible, amaṇiva jewelless, rājīva striped.

b. There are a very few adjectives in vala and vaya which may be noticed here: thus, kṛṣīvalá peasant (kṛṣi ploughing), ūrṇāvalá wooly, rajasvala, ūrjasvala, payasvala, çādvala, naḍvala, çikhāvala, dantāvala; druváya wooden dish, caturvaya fourfold.

c. With vya are made two or three words from names of relationship: thus, pítṛvya paternal uncle, bhrā́tṛvya nephew, enemy.

1229. श ça. A very few adjectives appear to be made by an added ending of this form.

a. Thus, romaçá or lomaçá hairy, étaça (also etaçá) variegated, arvaçá or árvaça hasting, babhluçá or babhruçá and kapiça brownish, kṛṣṇaça blackish, yuvaçá youthful, bāliça childish, karkaça harsh, karmaça (?) n. pr.; and giriça, vāriça (?), vṛkṣaça are doubtless of the same character (not containing the root çī). The character of harīmaçá, káçmaça, kaláça is doubtful.

b. Many of the adjective derivatives already treated have sometimes a possessive value, the general meaning of being concerned with, having relation to being specialized into that of being in possession of. But there are also a few distinctively possessive suffixes; and some of these, on account of the unlimited freedom of using them and the frequency of their occurrence, are very conspicuous parts of the general system of derivation. These will be next considered.

1230. इन् in. Possessive adjectives of this ending may be formed almost unlimitedly from stems in अ a or आ ā, and are sometimes (but very rarely) made from stems with other finals.

a. A final vowel disappears before the suffix. The accent is on the suffix. As to the inflection of these adjectives, see above, 438 ff. They are to be counted by hundreds in the older language, and are equally or more numerous in the later.