Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/532

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acter of the prior member — whether the noun-final be preceded by a qualifying adjective, or noun, or adverb.

1298. Possessive compounds in which a noun is preceded by a qualifying ordinary adjective are (as pointed out above, 1280 f) very much more common than descriptives of the same form.

a. They regularly and usually have the accent of their prior member: thus, anyárūpa of other form, ugrábāhu having powerful arms, jīváputra having living sons, dīrgháçmaçru longbearded, bṛhácchravas of great renown, bhū́rimūla many-rooted, mahā́vadha bearing a great weapon, viçvárūpa having all forms, çukrávarṇa of bright color, çivā́bhimarçana of propitious touch, satyásaṁdha of true promises, sárvān̄ga whole-limbed, sváyaças having own glory, háritasraj wearing yellow garlands.

b. Exceptions, however, in regard to accent are not rare (a seventh or eighth of the whole number, perhaps). Thus, the accent is sometimes that of the final member; especially with derivatives in as, as tuvirā́dhas, purupéças, pṛthupákṣas, and others in which (as above, 1296 b) a determinative character may be suspected: thus, urujráyas beside urujrí, uruvyácas beside uruvyác, and so on; but also with those of other final, as ṛjuhásta, çitikákṣa etc., kṛṣṇakárṇa, citradṛ́çika, tuviçúṣma, ṛjukrátu, pṛthupárçu, puruvártman, raghuyā́man, vīḍupátman. In a very few cases, the accent is retracted from the final to the first syllable of the second member: thus, aṅhubhéda, tuvigrī́va, puruvī́ra, pururū́pa, çitibā́hu (also çitibāhú). The largest class is that of compounds which take the accent upon their final syllable (in part, of course, not distinguishable from those which retain the accent of the final member): for example, bahvanná, nīlanakhá, puruputrá, viçvān̄gá, svapatí, tuvipratí, pṛçiparnī́ f., darçataçrī́, pūtirajjú, asitajñú, pṛthugmán, bahuprajás.

c. The adjective víçva all, as prior member of a compound (and also in derivation), changes its accent regularly to viçvá; sárva whole, all does the same in a few cases.

1299. Possessive compounds with a participle preceding and qualifying the final noun-member are numerous, although such a compound with simple descriptive value is almost unknown. The accent is, with few exceptions, that of the prior member.

a. The participle is oftenest the passive one, in ta or na. Thus, chinnápakṣa with severed wing, dhṛtárāṣṭra of firmly held royalty, hatámātṛ whose mother is slain, iddhā́gni whose fire is kindled, uttānáhasta with outstretched hand, práyatadakṣiṇa having presented sacrificial gifts; and, with prefixed negative, áriṣṭavīra whose men are unharmed, átaptatanu of unburned substance, ánabhimlātavarṇa of untarnished color. Exceptions in regard to accent are very few: there have been noticed only paryastākṣá, vyastakeçī́ f., achinnaparṇá.