Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/96

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III. Euphonic Combination.

tative: namely, in certain Vedic compounds with dus: dūḍábha, dūḍā́ç, dūḍhī́, dūṇáça, dūṇā́ça (compare the anomalous puroḍā́ç and -ḍā́ça: puras + √dāç); and, in the language of every period, certain compounds of ṣaṣ, with change of its vowel to an alterant quality (as in voḍhum and soḍhum: 224 b): ṣóḍaça, ṣoḍhā́ (also ṣaḍḍhā́ and ṣaḍdhā́), ṣoḍant.

e. Between final ṭ and initial s, the insertion of a t is permitted—or, according to some authorities, required: thus, ṣáṭ sahásrāḥ or ṣáṭt sahásrāḥ.

200. The cases of assimilation of a dental to a contiguous palatal occur almost only in external combination, and before an initial palatal. There is but one case of internal combination, namely:

201. A न् n coming to follow a palatal mute in internal combination is itself made palatal.

Thus, yācñā́ (the only instance after c), yajñá, jajñé, ajñata, rā́jñā, rā́jñī.

202. a. A final त् t before an initial palatal mute is assimilated to it, becoming च् c before च् c or छ् ch, and ज् j before ज् j (झ् jh does not occur).

Thus, uc carati, etac chattram, vidyuj jāyate; yātayájjana, vidyujjihva, bṛhácchandas, saccarita.

b. A final न् n is assimilated before ज् j, becoming ञ् ñ.

c. All the grammarians, of every period, require this assimilation of n ot j; but it is more often neglected, or only occasionally made, in the manuscripts.

d. For n before a surd palatal, see below, 208.

203. Before the palatal sibilant श् ç, both त् t and न् n are assimilated, becoming respectively च् c and ञ् ñ; and then the following श् ç may be, and in practice almost always is, converted to छ् ch.

Thus, vedavic chūraḥ (-vit çū-), tac chrutvā, hṛcchaya (hṛt + çaya); bṛhañ cheṣaḥ or çeṣaḥ, svapañ chete or çete.

a. Some authorities regard the conversion of ç to ch after t or n as everywhere obligatory, others as only optional; some except, peremptorily or optionally, a ç followed by a mute. And some require the same conversion after every mute save m, reading also vípāṭ chutudrī́, ā́naṭ chúci, anuṣṭup chāradī, çuk chuci. The manuscripts generally write ch, instead of cch, as result of the combination of t and ç.

b. In the MS., t and ç are anomalously combined into ñ ç: e.g. táñ çatám, etāvañçás.