Page:Southern Historical Society Papers volume 12.djvu/507

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Some Great Constitutional Questions. 497

constitutionally members, citizens and subjects of States, and the Federal law was laid on them and their obedience commanded by States. [See Art. IV, § 2 ; Art. Ill, § 2 ; Am. Ed. XI ; Rep. of Rep. 4th Ed., Part V, ch. VII.] The Democratic caucus resolution that our people are citizens of iivo governments, owing allegiance to both, is not even respectable sophistry, let alone truth.

V. All voters belong originally and absolutely to the States, and all the representatives, senators, and presidential electors are freely " chosen" or "appointed," by the said States, from their own mem- bers or subjects, and have title to office and right to act in Federal matters only through the commissions and under the seals of their respective States. In short, and obviously, all the life and validity of the Constitution come from States; all the "powers" of it are "dele- gated" by them and "vested" in its "governments," and all its operations of every kind and character are theirs — they themselves really being " the Government " of the country for general affairs

"the states" are the real "government of the united


No one who searches for truth, and thinks, can fail to see that " the people" are the States and the States the people — all being "the people of the United States" and " citizens of different States," as the Constitution itself says ; that the associated States themselves are really and necessarily " the government of [/. e. belonging to] the United States ; " — the so-called Government being only their agency; that all the authority in the Constitution is delegated or entrusted in writing, by the States, for their own use, to their own servants, who are, in technical status, describable as their "substitutes and agents [see the original bills of rights and Elliot's Debates, /!>^7.f.y/w] ; " and finally, that the Convention of 1787, unanimously declared as follows : " The style of this Government shall be the United States of America" — thus showing beyond doubt that the republics or self- governing societies of people were to continue to be, as they had been, the governing powers of the land. [See Rep. of Rep's, part III, ch. VIL]


Before concluding I will give another blackboard-demonstration of error — as to sovereignty — which is of vital moment. The bottom line of the following diagram "A" to "B" is the e.xtent of gov- 5