240 Southern Historical Society Papers.
There were enlisted in the Federal army during the war 2,778,304 soldiers, which was about twelve per cent, of her population; while, according to Federal statistics, the enrollment in the Confederate army was only 690,000, which was about seventeen per cent, of the population. The Confederates, on the estimates made by General Wright, agent for collection of Confederate statistics, deny that they ever had 690,000 enrolled, as the Army of the Confederacy. " Absent and present," was as follows for each year : January, 1862, 318,011; January, 1863, 465,584; January, 1864, 472,781; January, 1865, 439,675. (^'Battles and Leaders" Vol. IV., p. 768.)
Taking the Federal enlistment at 2,778,304, and the number of Federals on the pay-roll May i, 1865, at 1,000,516, it would give about thirty-seven per cent, of the enlistment present. This would give, on the same basis, about 222,000 Confederates under arms. This would preserve the ratio of 600,000 to 2,778,304 enlistments, and the general ratio of population, 8,000,000 to 24,000,000. The difference between the Confederate reports of January i, 1865, 439,- 675, and the number paroled after the surrender, 174,000, is accounted for by the heavy losses of the Confederates by death and desertion between January i, 1865, and the date of parole.
We now propose to select twelve of the greatest battles of the civil war, not that they are all decisive battles, but because they represent the largest forces engaged on both sides, and because the official record and "Battles and Leaders" furnish us reliable statis- tics as to the actual forces on or near these battlefields. They are Shilohj Stone's river, Chickamauga, Richmond, second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, The Wilder- ness, Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor.
Shiloh was the first great battle-test between the opposing armies of the West. Grant was there with the veterans of Donaldson and Henry. Sherman, with his splendid division on the right, while to his left were McClernand, Prentiss, Wallace (W. H. L.), Hurleburt and Stuart, with the division of Lew Wallace only five miles away, and Nelson's division of the Army of Ohio across the river at Savan- nah, not more than seven miles from the field of battle.
Albert Sydney Johnson, the Confederate commander, began form- ing his line of battle the day before about noon, and by 5 P. M. of the 5th his line was ready for action, though on account of the late- ness of the hour the battle was postponed till the next morning. At 5 o'clock the next morning, April 6, 1862, the battle opened by an